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The Official Black History Thread!!!! (GREAT READ)

 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Joja1107 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: Feb 12 2013 at 6:09pm
Originally posted by Alias_Avi Alias_Avi wrote:


sooooo gooood Clap

I laughed when the white girls started crying Stern Smile

Originally posted by Eden. Eden. wrote:

THE ANGRY EYE






That was a good video. In the 2nd video @ 7:30 until the end was on the money. It is not the same struggle.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote goodm3 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: Feb 13 2013 at 10:18am
Originally posted by Alias_Avi Alias_Avi wrote:

ETA: I'm providing the link because the author makes interesting comments in the comment section too

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rajiv-malhotra/indian-americans-learn-history_b_2633146.html

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What Indian Americans Can Learn During Black History Month


Rajiv Malhotra

Rajiv Malhotra

Author, 'BEING DIFFERENT: An Indian Challenge to Western Universalism'


February is celebrated as America's Black History Month, making it an opportune time to examine some important relationships between the Indian and black communities in this country. For one, there are longstanding ties between the two peoples that ought to be unearthed and rekindled. Mahatma Gandhi started his civil disobedience movement in South Africa where he spent 21 years honing his political philosophy and leadership skills. The event that became the turning point in his life was when he was thrown off a train, because as a person of color he was not allowed to sit in first-class even though he had a first-class ticket. The indignity of this event, similar to that experienced by all people of color in South Africa at that time, launched him into a life of social and political activism. His movement culminated in the eventual overthrow of the British Empire and colonialism in general.

Gandhi's non-violent struggle later inspired the young Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who studied Gandhi's civil disobedience approach known as satyagraha, and visited India in 1959 for a month. The details of this trip are memorably recounted in his essay, "My trip to the land of Gandhi", published in Ebony magazine in 1959. Martin Luther King Jr. had this to say about the reception he received:

"Since our pictures were in the newspapers very often it was not unusual for us to be recognized by crowds in public places and on public conveyances [...] Virtually every door was open to us. We had hundreds of invitations that limited time did not allow us to accept. We were looked upon as brothers with the color of our skins as something of an asset. But the strongest bond of fraternity was the common cause of minority and colonial peoples in America, Africa and Asia struggling to throw off racialism and imperialism".
The Rev. Jesse Jackson Sr., too, has had recurring contact with India in all the years of his active career. In one trip he spent six months in India prior to the Civil Rights Movement in the U.S.

Recently, in 2008, on the occasion of Gandhi's 60th death anniversary, he delivered the memorial lecture in New Delhi where he remarked, "One can argue that Mahatma Gandhi, known as Bapu (father) to his compatriots, was the spiritual godfather of these world-class figures (Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela) who changed the world."

Today, as Indian Americans have become established successfully in their newly adopted country, it is easy to forget the importance of these bonds. We must remember that the 1965 Immigration & Nationality Act which opened the door for large numbers of Asians, Africans and Latin Americans, was enacted against the backdrop of the Civil Rights Movement and the changes in attitude that it created. This reversed the previous system that was designed to maintain the European racial composition of the United States.

Immigrants from India tended to be well-educated, middle-class professionals seeking prosperity, and they hit the ground running to seize the opportunities. Because most Indian Americans arrived after the Civil Rights Act, they did not experience the indignities suffered by African Americans, and because they belonged to the post-Independence generation of India, they hadn't experienced life under colonial rule either. Professional success came relatively quickly to many Indians and this dulled the impetus to appreciate the benefits of a strong collective identity.

The long list of successful Indian Americans is impressive indeed, but it has made many too self-centered and single-minded in economic pursuits. Success has led to the myth that "becoming American" makes a collective identity irrelevant. Few Indian leaders have studied the history of immigration and identity formation of other minorities in America. They are confused about what the hyphenated identity as "Indian-Americans" means, and what their unique American journey and cultural background could contribute to the fabric of this country.

The recent unceremonious dismissal of Citigroup CEO, Vikram Pandit, despite his stellar record, should cause Indian Americans to do some soul searching. Sadly, Pandit found himself without allies on his own board of directors to defend him as one of their own. In fact, none of the board members was close enough to him to even give a hint that he was about to get fired. When he arrived at the fateful board meeting, he had no clue of what was in store for him.

Moreover, this shocking episode went un-scrutinized by our community that feels uncomfortable addressing its vulnerability for being "different." Individual success, based solely on merit, has surely taken us a long way in America. The playing field is level enough to advance up to a point, but without the anchor and security of a collective voice, high-achieving Indians will remain the solitary outsiders, easy to bring down.

What does all this have to do with African Americans, one might wonder? My response is that they have deep memory and understanding of building community organizations in America. Black churches have historically played a strategic role in building a positive selfhood and collective consciousness, and today there are numerous African-American civic organizations with depth and maturity to secure their position. Unlike the case of Indian immigrants, theirs has not been a quick-success journey, but a long, hard one with many valuable lessons learned along the way.

The Reconstruction era after the emancipation of slaves had offered many lessons to African Americans. Ostensibly, it was to be a period when blacks and whites would together rebuild the South, share political power and rehabilitate the former slaves. Indeed, many blacks attained prominent positions, and two blacks were elected as senators. So they felt little need to build separate institutions, imagining that the American melting pot would suffice. The advances made during the Reconstruction, however, proved to be short lived. Soon there was a backlash against blacks and the nation entered the era of Jim Crow laws and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan. Freedom from slavery did not mean that whites accepted blacks as true equals in jobs and power. Equality had its limits, especially at times when whites faced economic distress.

It was after this experience that a new kind of African-American leadership emerged with a focus on building a resilient, independent identity with its own institutions. Unified action was encouraged. This groundwork ultimately led to the American Civil Rights Act in the 1960s, just as Gandhi's struggle took nearly half a century of strenuous work before culminating in India's independence. The African-American experience shows us that there is no substitute for grassroots community building and activism, an endeavor that Indian Americans have barely begun. Whether African Americans, Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans or Muslim Americans, the importance of investing in robust civic organizations based on a solid definition of one's distinct identity has been indispensable in America.

Without such bottom-up community building, we can expect to see more Vikram Pandits, easily booted out. Or, as I wrote in my blog last week, there will be more Bobby Jindals willing to whitewash their ethnicity in order to get ahead. African Americans provide the experience we need for building a distinct identity in this country. Dr. King said it best: "The way of acquiescence leads to moral and spiritual suicide. The way of violence leads to bitterness in the survivors and brutality in the destroyers. But, the way of non-violence leads to redemption and the creation of the beloved community."



This is a great article....and the author makes some great point! And yes, Bobby Jindal has white washed himself. 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (1) Thanks(1)   Quote Rumbera Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: Feb 13 2013 at 11:07am
afrolatinoforum:&amp;#10;&amp;#10;André Pinto Rebouças (13 January 1838 – 9 April 1898) was a Brazilian military engineer, abolitionist and inventor, son of Antônio Pereira Rebouças (1798–1880) and Carolina Pinto Rebouças. Lawyer, member of Parliament (representing the Brazilian state of Bahia) and an adviser to Pedro II of Brazil. His father was the son of a manumitted slave and a Portuguese tailor. His mother was an enslaved woman. His brothers Antônio Pereira Rebouças Filho and José Rebouças were also engineers.&amp;#10;Rebouças became famous in Rio de Janeiro, at the time capital of the Empire of Brazil, solving the trouble of water supply, bringing it from fountain-heads outside the town. Serving as a military engineer during the Paraguayan War in Paraguay, Rebouças developed a torpedo, which was used successfully. Alongside Machado de Assis and Olavo Bilac, Rebouças was a very important middle class representative with African descent, he also was one of the most important voices for the abolition of slavery in Brazil. He encouraged the career of Antônio Carlos Gomes, author of the opera O Guarani.&amp;#10;In the 1880s, Rebouças began to participate actively in the abolitionist cause, he helped to create the Brazilian Anti-Slavery Society, alongside Joaquim Nabuco, José do Patrocínio and others.&amp;#10;Reboucas was always very discreet about his color and the prejudice he suffered. He rarely talked about it and there are almost no references to the problem in his diary, used by researchers as an important source of historical information. As an abolitionist, he helped not only the intellectual ideals of abolition, but also in the effective action in motion. His progressive and liberal views counteract all kinds of enslavement, not only black, but fighting against the “re-enslavement by the immigrant owners of the land.” It was one of the few abolitionists who foresaw the deeper implications of the elimination of labor-slave labor. For him the “slavery is not in name but in fact enjoy the work without paying miserable wages or paying only the minimum necessary to keep from starving […] demean and minimize the salary is reescravizar” [… ]&amp;#10;He advocated the emancipation of slaves and regeneration by the acquisition of land ownership. For him the key to the transformation of Brazilian agriculture was changing systems of land tenure.&amp;#10;These ideas are outlined in his best-known book, Agriculture national economic studies: abolitionist propaganda and democratic. He wanted to deploy the country what he called the Brazilian Rural Democracy. His statement: “Whoever owns the land owns the Man,” sums up his stance on social issues of the nineteenth century, besides indicating the relevance of his thought&amp;#10;After the Republican coup d’État, Rebouças went into exile with Pedro II to Europe. For two years he stayed exiled in Lisboa, as a correspondent for The Times of London.In 1892, facing financial problems, Rebouças went to Luanda and after that, Funchal, in Madeira. In 1898 his body was found at the shoreline. He supposedly committed suicide.&amp;#10;[RESOURCES: http://rioeandrerebou.blogspot.com/2012/10/andre-pinto-reboucas-foi-um-exemplo-de.html , http://negrosabolicionismo.blogspot.com/2010/08/andre-reboucas.html, http://www.projectblackman.com/GreatBlackMenInHistory.aspx?notablePersonId=76, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/André_Rebouças ]&amp;#10;&amp;#10;It&amp;#8217;s a wonder! And I see the reason why our history isn&amp;#8217;t taught in schools. Reading about this stuff gives you such a sense of empowerment it&amp;#8217;s unbelievable. Inferiority complexes don&amp;#8217;t stand a chance when you learn about your real true legacies. I&amp;#8217;m not even Brazilian but it doesn&amp;#8217;t matter. ANYTIME I read about African-descendants I swell with pride because that&amp;#8217;s part of my history. A history that nobody cares to teach but you must seek out on your own.

André Pinto Rebouças (13 January 1838 – 9 April 1898) was a Brazilian military engineer, abolitionist and inventor, son of Antônio Pereira Rebouças (1798–1880) and Carolina Pinto Rebouças. Lawyer, member of Parliament (representing the Brazilian state of Bahia) and an adviser to Pedro II of Brazil. His father was the son of a manumitted slave and a Portuguese tailor. His mother was an enslaved woman. His brothers Antônio Pereira Rebouças Filho and José Rebouças were also engineers.

Rebouças became famous in Rio de Janeiro, at the time capital of the Empire of Brazil, solving the trouble of water supply, bringing it from fountain-heads outside the town. Serving as a military engineer during the Paraguayan War in Paraguay, Rebouças developed a torpedo, which was used successfully. Alongside Machado de Assis and Olavo Bilac, Rebouças was a very important middle class representative with African descent, he also was one of the most important voices for the abolition of slavery in Brazil. He encouraged the career of Antônio Carlos Gomes, author of the opera O Guarani.

In the 1880s, Rebouças began to participate actively in the abolitionist cause, he helped to create the Brazilian Anti-Slavery Society, alongside Joaquim Nabuco, José do Patrocínio and others.

Reboucas was always very discreet about his color and the prejudice he suffered. He rarely talked about it and there are almost no references to the problem in his diary, used by researchers as an important source of historical information. As an abolitionist, he helped not only the intellectual ideals of abolition, but also in the effective action in motion. His progressive and liberal views counteract all kinds of enslavement, not only black, but fighting against the “re-enslavement by the immigrant owners of the land.” It was one of the few abolitionists who foresaw the deeper implications of the elimination of labor-slave labor. For him the “slavery is not in name but in fact enjoy the work without paying miserable wages or paying only the minimum necessary to keep from starving […] demean and minimize the salary is reescravizar” [… ]

He advocated the emancipation of slaves and regeneration by the acquisition of land ownership. For him the key to the transformation of Brazilian agriculture was changing systems of land tenure.

These ideas are outlined in his best-known book, Agriculture national economic studies: abolitionist propaganda and democratic. He wanted to deploy the country what he called the Brazilian Rural Democracy. His statement: “Whoever owns the land owns the Man,” sums up his stance on social issues of the nineteenth century, besides indicating the relevance of his thought

After the Republican coup d’État, Rebouças went into exile with Pedro II to Europe. For two years he stayed exiled in Lisboa, as a correspondent for The Times of London.In 1892, facing financial problems, Rebouças went to Luanda and after that, Funchal, in Madeira. In 1898 his body was found at the shoreline. He supposedly committed suicide.

[RESOURCES: http://rioeandrerebou.blogspot.com/2012/10/andre-pinto-reboucas-foi-um-exemplo-de.html , http://negrosabolicionismo.blogspot.com/2010/08/andre-reboucas.html, http://www.projectblackman.com/GreatBlackMenInHistory.aspx?notablePersonId=76, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/André_Rebouças ]

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Rumbera Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: Feb 13 2013 at 1:59pm
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Great add Rumbera!!! 
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I hope this is not a repost lol
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Naturalchick30 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: Feb 13 2013 at 7:46pm

American Slavery Was Born 393 Years Ago Today

How and where human beings were bought, sold and owned in Center City Philadelphia.

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As you take your lunch break today in Center City, stroll over to Front and Market where the historic London Coffee House once stood, and celebrate the institution that made America one of the wealthiest and most powerful countries in the world, the institution born exactly 393 years ago on August 20, 1619: the institution of slavery. In fact, it was at that site in downtown Philly, where black men, women and children were bought and sold like cattle and like tools.

On that fateful date nearly four centuries ago, as noted by English settler John Rolfe, a wealthy tobacco planter and the so-called husband of Pocahontas, “ … there came a Dutch man of warre that sold us twenty and odd Negars” in the Virginia Colony at Old Point Comfort (now Fort Comfort in Hampton). They were the first enslaved blacks in a land that would become the United States of America.

Following Portuguese raids in southern Africa that began in 1617, Luis Mendes de Vasconcellos invaded the village of Ndongo in Luanda, Angola in 1619 and loaded 60 captives aboard the slave ship Sao Joao Bautista and ordered it sent to Vera Cruz, Mexico. The ships White Lion—with Captain John Jope (also known as “The Flying Dutchman”) at the helm along with his assistant, English pilot Marmaduke Rayner—and the Treasurer joined forces when they came across the Sao Joao Bautista in the waters of the West Indies, attacked it, and robbed it of its entire cargo, including the Africans—placing them on the White Lion, which arrived at Old Point Comfort on August 20, 1619 with 20 of the 60. When the Treasurer arrived about four days later and attempted to trade the 40 African captives aboard for supplies, they were rebuffed. So they took their condemned human cargo not to the sunny beaches of Bermuda but to its hellish plantations, never to be heard from again. The price for these humans? Corn!

Among the 20 captured Angolans left at Old Point Comfort, two, namely Antonio and Isabella (whose Spanish Christian names were forced upon them like we name our pets today), were traded to Captain William Tucker for “badly needed provisions.” By the way, four years later, Antonio and Isabella became the parents of the first black child whose birth was officially documented in Colonial America. And the name imposed upon him was William Tucker—also the name of the man who enslaved his parents. A third identified person, who was given the name Pedro, and the remaining 17 were traded for additional products to Governor George Yeardley and Abraham Piersey, who forced them to labor at plantations along the nearby James River in what would become Charles City.

But such trading and selling and forced labor were not unique to Charles City or James River plantations or Old Point Comfort or Virginia or even the South. It happened right here in Philadelphia, in downtown Philly to be exact. On the southwest corner of Front and High—now Market—streets, stood the London Coffee House, which opened in 1754 with funds provided by more than 200 Philadelphia merchants. It was where merchants, shippers, businessmen and local officials, including the governor, socialized, drank coffee and alcohol, and ate in private booths while making deals. It was where, on the High Street side, auctions were held for carriages, foodstuffs, and horses—and, by the way, human beings, specifically African humans beings who had just been unloaded from ships that docked right across the street on the Delaware River.

In 1991, a historical marker was installed on the corner of Front and Market, and it reads: “Scene of political and commercial activity in the colonial period, the London Coffee House … served as a place to inspect Black slaves recently arrived from Africa and to bid for their purchase at public auctions.” It really says that. And it really happened there. Actually here. In Center City.

And it happened like this. The captured black men, women and children, usually about five or six at a time, were placed on a thick wooden board, approximately three feet wide and eight feet long, set atop two heavy barrels on each end. These whipped and shackled human beings were paraded onto the boards, forced on display to slowly turn around and bend over, inspected by having their mouths forced open, their genitals grabbed, and their limb muscles flexed, and then they were auctioned off to the highest bidder. Immediately afterward, they were sold off, mother taken from daughter, father from son, brother from sister, husband from wife. Following these forced separations, they were scattered across the country. And they would never touch or even see one another again.

I feel compelled to note that despite my valiant attempt to write this as a professional journalist should, I’m actually crying right now. Tears of pain and rage are literally streaming down my face and are forcing me to stop for a moment and think about the brutal heartlessness of these wicked auctions and these evil separations. Stop what you’re doing for a few seconds and imagine that happening today to you, to your children, to your parents, and to your siblings. Go ahead and try.

This heart-wrenching inhumanity was such an outrage to Founding Father Thomas Paine, who spent time as a boarder across the street from the London Coffee House, that among his first editorials were essays harshly condemning the slave trade.

Slavery was an essential component of day-to-day life in Pennsylvania generally and Philadelphia specifically. In the 1760s, nearly 4,500 enslaved blacks labored in the colony. About one of every six white households in the city held at least one black person in bondage. This cruel institution began in this colony in 1684 when the slave ship Isabella, from Bristol, England, anchored in Philadelphia with 150 captured Africans. A year later, William Penn himself had three black human beings in bondage at his Pennsbury manor, approximately 20 miles north of Philadelphia.

Even George Washington, the great patriot, the great general, and the great president enslaved blacks, 316 to be exact. And he illegally—yes, illegally—held nine of them right here in the City of Brotherly Love at America’s first “White House,” which was officially known as the President’s House at Sixth and Market (then High) streets. In fact, it was at that very location where, in 1793, he signed the notorious Fugitive Slave Act, a law that threw escaped black men, women and children back into bondage.

You might say that all of this slavery stuff happened a long time ago, that it ended 147 years ago in 1865, and that I should therefore “get over it.” But slavery and its direct effect didn’t really end then. After passage of the 13th Amendment, there was sharecropping, then convict leasing, then de jure Jim Crow laws, then de facto Jim Crow practices. In fact, it wasn’t until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964—a mere 48 years ago—that equal rights started to become at least somewhat of a practical reality. And if you don’t agree, then answer this: If you, your parents, your grandparents, your great-grandparents, and so on could have the experience in America that blacks had or that whites had, which would you choose? I know what the 20 human beings in Old Point Comfort 393 years ago from this very day would have chosen.

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William Penn was a slave owner. (Module 3)

William Penn was a devout member of the Society of Friends, or Quakers. On March 4, 1681 Charles II signed a charter for territory to settle his debt with Penn’s late father. The King proposed the name “Pennsylvania” which means “Forests of Penn” to honor Penn’s late father, the Admiral. Penn became the proprietor, owning all the land, accountable directly to the King. (Powell) “He hoped that Pennsylvania could be governed according to Quaker principles, among them the equality of all persons (including women, blacks, and Indians) before God and the primacy of the individual conscience. To Quakers, liberty was a universal entitlement, not the possession of any single people-a position that would eventually make them the first group of whites to repudiate slavery. (Foner 92) The Indians stated, “They longed for the days when “old William Penn” treated them with fairness and respect” (Foner 114) In Foner’s book, William Penn is described as an activist of equality and yet I found in other documents that he owned slaves.

In Douglas Harper’s "Slavery in Pennsylvania" he states, Penn himself owned slaves, and used them to work his estates, Pennsbury. He wrote that he preferred them to white indentured servants, “for then a man has them while they live.” On America.gov, Ralph Dannheisser states, Penn believed, author Betty Wood has said that “slavery was perfectly acceptable, provided that slave owners attended to the spiritual and material needs of those they enslaved.” On US History.org in the "Brief History of William Penn" it states “There have been claims that he also fought slavery, but that seems unlikely, as he owned and even traded slaves himself. However, he did promote good treatment for slaves, and other Pennsylvania Quakers were among the earliest fighters against slavery. Penn condoned slavery as long as you treated slaves well. The documents don’t explore the subject any further but go onto discuss Penn’s other accomplishments.

On November 28, 1984 Ronald Reagon declared William Penn and Hannah Callowhill Penn to be an Honorary Citizen of the United States. (US History.org) William Penn was the first great hero of American Liberty. For the first time in modem history, a large society offered equal rights to people of different races and religions. (Powell) I don’t think I am able to come to a conclusion about honoring William Penn due to not having all the information. Jim Powell who wrote "William Penn, America’s First Great Champion for Liberty and Peace", thinks William Penn was the first great hero but how can that be when he contradicted what he was fighting for? The history of William Penn only states those few sentences on him owning slaves and trading slaves. I wasn’t able to find further documentation that explains his full involvement in slavery. Again we don’t have the full details of William Penn’s history to form your own opinion.

 

Unbelievable...
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