Joined: Aug 14 2009
Posted: Feb 12 2013 at 9:17pm
| pattigurlatl wrote:|
This story like so many others broke my heart:
This was a good read. Now I'm going to do some research. I live about an 45 minutes for Giles County, tn.
Joined: Aug 16 2008
Location: me voy pa' Cuba
Posted: Feb 12 2013 at 9:25pm
These stories are heartbreaking.
We need a seperate school for blacks.
Joined: May 14 2006
Posted: Feb 12 2013 at 9:33pm
| Rumbera wrote:|
These stories are heartbreaking.
We need a seperate school for blacks.
Rumbera they are so sad but I have to find this story of love that I found amongst all this horror. It was so sweet and endearing that I cried myself to sleep. I generally read these narratives on my tablet in my bed before going to sleep.
When I find it I will share it in a separate thread because it is so minor in the way it is being told but bears way more impact than I think the storyteller ever realized.
Joined: Aug 16 2008
Location: me voy pa' Cuba
Posted: Feb 13 2013 at 11:32am
WARNING !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! GRAPHIC !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Never Forget !!!!!
Edited by Rumbera - Feb 13 2013 at 11:32am
Joined: Apr 16 2012
Posted: Feb 13 2013 at 7:25pm
Sorry if this is a repost:
nineteen-year-old Celia, a slave on a Missouri farm, five years of being
repeatedly raped by her middle-aged owner was enough. On the night of June 23,
1855, she would later tell a reporter, "the Devil got into me" and Celia fatally
clubbed her master as he approached her in her cabin. The murder trial of the
slave Celia, coming at a time when the controversy over the issue of slavery
reached new heights, raised fundamental questions about the rights of slaves to
fight back against the worst of slavery's abuses.
Around 1820, Robert Newsom and his family
left Virginia and headed west, finally settling land along the Middle River in
Callaway County, Missouri. By 1850 (according to the census), Newsom owned
eight-hundred acres of land and livestock that included horses, milk cows, beef
cattle, hogs, sheep, and two oxen. Like the majority of Callaway County farmers,
Newsom also owned slaves--five male slaves as of 1850.
summer of 1850, Newsom purchased from a slave owner in neighboring Audrain
County a sixth
slave, a fourteen-year-old girl named Celia. Shortly after returning with Celia
to his farm, Newsom raped her. For female slaves, rape was an "ever present
threat" and, far too often, a reality. Over the next five years, Newsom would
make countless treks to Celia's slave cabin, located in a grove of fruit trees
some distance from his main house, and demand sex from the teenager he
considered his concubine. Celia gave birth to two children between 1851 and
1855, the second being the son of Robert Newsom.
Sometime before 1855, a
real lover, another one of Newsom's slaves named George, entered Celia's life.
On several occasions, George "stayed" at Celia's cabin, although whether for a
few hours or an entire night is unknown. In late winter, either February or
early March, of 1855, Celia again became pregnant. The pregnancy affected
George, and caused him to insist that Celia put an end to the pattern of sexual
exploitation by Newsom that continued to that time. George informed Celia that
"he would have nothing more to do with her if she did not quit the old man" [trial testimony of Jefferson
Celia approached Newsom's daughters, Virginia and Mary,
asking their help in getting Newsom "to quit forcing her while she was sick."
It is not clear whether either of the Newsom daughters made any attempt to
intervene on Celia's behalf, but it is known that the sexual assaults
continued. In desperation, Celia begged Newsom to leave her alone, at least
through her pregnancy, but the slave owner was unreceptive to her
On June 23, 1855, Newsom told Celia "he was coming to her cabin
that night." Around 10 P.M., Newsom left his bedroom and walked the fifty yards
to Celia's brick cabin. When Newsom told Celia it was time for sex, she
retreated to a corner of the cabin. He advanced toward her. Celia then grabbed
a stick placed there earlier in the day. Celia raised the stick, "about as
large as the upper part of a Windsor chair, but not so long," and struck her
master hard over the head. Newsom groaned and "sunk down on a stool or towards
the floor." Celia clubbed Newsom over the head a second time, killing him
[testimony of Jefferson
After making sure "he was dead," Celia spent an hour or so pondering her
next step. Finally she decided to burn Newsom's body in her fireplace. She
went outside to gather staves and used them to build a raging fire. Then she
dragged the corpse over to the fireplace and pushed it into the flames. She
kept the fire going through the night. In the early morning, she gathered up
bone fragments from the ashes and smashed them against the hearth stones, then
threw the particles back into the fireplace. A few larger pieces of bone she
put "under the hearth, and under the floor between a sleeper and the
fireplace." Shortly before daybreak, Celia carried some of the ashes out into
the yard and then went to bed.
In the morning, as Newsom's family was
growing concerned about Robert's disappearance, Celia enlisted the help of
Newsom's grandson, Coffee Waynescot, in shoveling ashes out of her fireplace and
into a bucket. Coffee testified later he decided to help when the slave said
"she would give me two dozen walnuts if I would carry the ashes out; I said good
lick." Following Celia's instruction, Coffee distributed the remains of his
grandfather along a path leading to the stables.
On the morning of the 24th, Virginia Newsom
searched for her father in along nearby creek banks and coves, fearing he might
have drowned. By mid-morning, the search party grew to include several
neighbors and Newsom's son, Harry. After fruitless hours of searching,
suspicion began to turn to George, who--it was thought--might have been
motivated to kill Newsom out of jealousy. William Powell, owner both of slaves
and an adjoining 160-acre farm, questioned George. George denied any knowledge
of what might have happened to Newsom, but then added--suspiciously--"it was not
worth while to hunt for him any where except close to the house." Faced with,
most likely, severe threats, George eventually provided an additional damning
bit of information. He told Powell "he believed the last walking [Newsom] had
done was along the path, pointing to the path leading from the house to the
Negro cabin." George's comment immediately led investigators to the conclusion
that Newsom had been killed in Celia's cabin.
When a search of Celia's
cabin failed to turn up Newsom's body, Powell and the others located Celia doing
her regular duties in the kitchen of the Newsom home. Powell falsely claimed
that George had told the search party that "she knew where her master was,"
hoping this approach might prompt a quick confession from Celia. Instead, Celia
denied any knowledge of her master's fate. Faced with escalating threats,
including the threat of having her children taken away from her, Celia continued
to insist on her innocence. (She undoubtedly understood that confessing to the
murder of her master would be an even more serious threat to her relationship
with her children.) Eventually, however, Celia admitted that Newsom had indeed
visited her cabin seeking sex the previous night. She insisted that Newsom
never entered her cabin, but rather that she struck him as he leaned inside the
window and "he fell back outside and she saw nothing more of him." Finally,
after refusing "for some time to tell anything more," Celia promised to tell
more if Powell would "send two men [Newsom's two sons] out of the room." When
Harry and David left, Celia confessed to the murder of Robert Newsom.
Following Celia's confession, the search party located Newsom's ashes
along the path to the stables. They also gathered bits of bones from Celia's
fireplace, larger bone fragments from under the hearth stone, and Newsom's burnt
buckle, buttons, and blackened pocketknife. The collected items were placed in
a box for display during the inquest that was to come.
Acting on an affidavit filed by David Newsom, the case of
State of Missouri v Celia, a Slave
commenced. Two justices of the peace, six local residents comprising an inquest jury, and three summoned witnesses all assembled
at the Newsom residence on the morning of June 25. William Powell testified first, providing the
jurors with an account of his interrogation of Celia the day before.
Twelve-year-old Coffee Waynescot told
jurors of Celia's request that he distribute what turned out to be his
grandfather's ashes along the path. The third and last witness was Celia, who reaffirmed that she killed Newsom, but
insisted that "she did not intend to kill him when she struck him, but only
wanted to hurt him." The inquest jury quickly
determined that probable cause existed that Celia feloniously and willfully
murdered Robert Newsom, and the slave girl was ordered taken to the Callaway
County jail in Fulton, nine miles to the north of the Newsom farm.
as to whether Celia could have pulled off her crime without help lingered, and
Callaway County Sheriff William Snell allowed two men, Jefferson Jones and
Thomas Shoatman, to conduct further questioning of Celia in her jail cell.
Celia added some additional detail to her original story, describing the history
of rape and sexual exploitation that began soon after her arrival on the Newsom
farm, but she
continued to deny that George played any role in Newsom's
death or the disposal of his body.
The Trial of
Celia's trial came at a time of heightened
tensions over the issue of slavery. In 1854, Congress had passed the
Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and allowed
settlers in those territories to decide for themselves whether to permit slavery
within their boundaries. Northern opposition to the new law led to the
establishment of the Republican Party and to campaigns by both pro-slavery and
anti-slavery groups to influence the outcomes of elections in Kansas. Some
prominent Missouri figures, such as
U. S. Senator David Atchinson and
University of Missouri President James Shannon, encouraged their slave-state
residents to counter the efforts of abolitionists who were moving to Kansas in
the hope of keeping it slave-free. Proslavery mobs of Missourians attacked both
Free-Soil voters in Kansans and threatened fellow Missourians who dared to
criticize their bullying tactics. By the summer of 1855, Missouri was awash
with proslavery rhetoric and increasingly active vigilante groups organized to
ensure Kansas would enter the Union as a slave state. On October 6, three days
before the start of Celia's trial, John
Brown arrived in a Kansas that contained two state legislatures, one
supporting Kansas's admission as a free state and one enacting slave laws. On
Missouri's western border, the possibility of civil war seemed real.
political implications of Celia's trial could not have escaped Circuit Court
Judge William Hall. Certainly, he knew, proslavery Missourians expected Celia
to hang. Hall's choice as Celia's defense attorney, John Jameson, was a safe
one. Jameson's reputation as a competent, genial member of the bar and his lack
of involvement in the heated slavery debates (despite being a slave owner
himself) ensured that his selection would not be seriously contested. Jameson
could provide the defendant with satisfactory--but not too satisfactory--representation. In
addition, Hall appointed two young lawyers, Isaac Boulware and Nathan Kouns, to
assist Jameson in his defense.
Celia's jurors, of course, were all male.
They ranged in age from thirty-four to seventy-five and, with one exception,
were married with children. All were farmers. Several were slave
The prosecution's first witness, Jefferson Jones, described his conversation with
Celia in the Callaway County jail. He told jurors Celia's account of the murder
and how she had disposed of the body. On cross-examination, Jameson questioned
Jones about what Celia had said about the sexual nature of her relationship to
the deceased. Jones testified that he had "heard" Newsom raped her soon after
her purchase from an Audrain County farmer--and that Celia told him that Newsom
had continued to demand sex in the five years that followed. Jones also
acknowledged that Celia had told him that she "did not intend to kill" Newsom,
"only to hurt him."
Waynescot, Newsom's eldest daughter, testified next. She described the
search for her father on direct examination, testifying, "I hunted on all of the
paths and walks and every place for him," including "caves and along the
creeks," but "I found no trace of him."
faced questioning on cross-examination concerning Celia's possible motive for
the killing. She admitted that Celia became pregnant ("took sick") in February
"and had been sick ever since"-- too sick even to cook for the
After Coffee Waynescot
described for jurors his unknowing dumping of his grandfather's ashes, William Powell took the stand. Jameson
cross-examined Powell vigorously, gaining admissions from the search party
leader that he had threatened Celia with the loss of her children and with
hanging to obtain her confession. Powell also testified that Celia had
complained that Newsom repeatedly demanded sex and that the slave girl had
approached other Newsom family members in a vain attempt to stop the rapes.
Powell also admitted that Celia told him that her attack on Newsom came from
desperation and that she only intended to injure, not kill, her master. After
Powell's testimony, the prosecution called two
doctors who identified the bone fragments found in Celia's cabin as those
from an adult human. Following the doctors' testimony, the state rested its
Dr. James Martin, a Fulton
physician, testified first for the defense. (Celia, as a slave, was not called
as a witness. Under the existing law in Missouri and most other states, a
criminal defendant could not--under "the interested party rule"--testify.)
Jameson posed for Martin questions designed to suggest that Celia was incapable
of committing the alleged crime without the aid of another person. The defense
attorney asked whether a human body could be so completely destroyed in a simple
fireplace in a span of only six or so hours, but the question met with a
prosecution objection, which Judge Hall sustained. Jameson tried rephrasing the
question a couple of different ways (e.g., "What, in your opinion as a
scientific physician, would be the time required to destroy an adult human
body?"), but fared no better with the objections and was forced to abandon that
line of questioning.
The second and last defense witness, Thomas Shoatman, testified that, during her
jail house interview, Celia had said that after she struck Newsom the first time
he "he threw his hand up to catch her." The judge, however, again sustained a
prosecution objection to the testimony, and jurors were instructed to ignore the
evidence that suggested the second and fatal blow came only after Celia was
physically threatened. Satisfied, perhaps, that the jury had at least heard the
reasons for Celia's desperate act, Jameson rested his case.
Judge Hall's jury instructions made an acquittal
all but impossible. He rejected all nine proposed defense instructions that
addressed the question of motive or degree of culpability. Among those thrown
out were instructions that would have allowed the jury to return a "not guilty"
verdict if the jury believed that Celia killed Newsom in an attempt to fight off
his sexual advances. The defense, for example, proposed that the jury be told
that they could acquit Celia on a self-defense theory if she believed she was
"in imminent danger of forced sexual intercourse." Instead of suggesting any
viable self-defense argument, Hall instructed jurors that "the defendant had no
right to kill [Newsom] because he came into her cabin and was talking to her
about having intercourse with her or anything else." Given the threat the
defense's proposed instructions presented to established understandings
concerning the very minimal rights of slaves, Hall's pro-prosecution
instructions should have come as no surprise. Neither, it is likely, was anyone
in the Callaway County courthouse surprised when, on October 10, the jury
quickly convicted Celia of first-degree
Celia's attorneys appeared again in court the next day to
move for a new trial, based on Judge Hall's evidentiary rulings during the
proceeding and his allegedly erroneous instructions. Judge Hall took
twenty-four hours to consider the defense motion, then rejected it and sentenced
Celia to be "hanged by the neck until dead on the sixteenth day of November
1855." The defense motion that it be allowed to appeal the judge's ruling to
the Missouri Supreme Court was granted.
In jail awaiting her execution, Celia
delivered a stillborn child. As the date for her execution approached, still no
word had come from Jefferson City on her appeal
filed in the Missouri Supreme Court. The possibility that she might be
hanged before her appeal was decided seemed ever more real to Celia's defense
team and whoever else she might count among her supporters. Something had to be
On November 11, five days before her scheduled date with the
gallows, Celia and another inmate were removed from the Callaway County jail,
either with the assistance or the knowledge of her defense lawyers. The defense
team, in a letter to Supreme Court Justice Abiel Leonard written less than a
month after her escape, noted that Celia "was taken out [of jail] by someone"
and that they felt "more than ordinary interest in behalf of the girl Celia"
owing to the circumstances of her act. Celia was returned to jail--by whom it
is not known--in late November, only after her scheduled execution date had
passed. Following her return, Judge Hall set a new execution date of December
21--a date, the defense hoped, that would give the Supreme Court time to issue
its decision on their appeal.
The Supreme Court ruled against Celia in her
appeal. In their December 14 order, the state justices said they "thought it
proper to refuse the prayer of the petitioner," having found "no probable cause
for her appeal." The stay of execution, the justices wrote, is
Celia was interviewed for a final time in her cell on the
evening before her execution. Again, she denied that "anyone assisted her...or
abetted her in any way." She told her interrogator, as reported in the Fulton Telegraph, "as soon as I struck him the
Devil got into me, and I struck him with a stick until he was dead, and then
rolled him into the fire and burnt him up." Celia died on the gallows at 2:30
P.M. on December 21, 1855.
Joined: Apr 16 2012
Posted: Feb 13 2013 at 7:33pm
|I am so
happy to hear that your efforts in England have been successful. It is my hope
that this letter may give you further motivation to continue your efforts, as
England is not the only place of social change.|
|Here in Barbados, there have been several slave uprisings. The participants are usually men, but
female slaves do a great many things in support of the cause. In fact, many
female slaves are even more angry than their male counterparts, for many slave
owners have realized that they can save money through the natural reproduction-
in other words, they find it more cost effective to force their slaves to breed
(53). The female slaves are not only forced to
have intercourse with other slaves, but masters often take advantage of them as
well. Even if a slave were to have a child by her master, the child would be a
slave because its status is derived from the mother (54). |
A Common Barbadan Slave (55)
female slaves have refused to have intercourse and often refuse to bear children
(56). At the same time, masters have tried to
entice these women to participate in this breeding project by offering them
special favors. These include less work, health care, better food, child care
for their children, access to a normal family life, and Christian marriage (57). Yet, these sorts of "priveleges" are only
offered in exchange for child-bearing. Male slaves still receive the highly
desired jobs, such as cart drivers, overseers, and artisans. These same men are
in charge of female slaves, and often punish the females for not submitting to
the males' sexual advances (58). The system of
slavery is terrible in itself, but it is undoubtedly worse for female
slave masters often prostitute their female slaves to locals. This is another
way "in which slave owners extract surplus value and emphasize their status as
colonial masters" (59). I find it strange that
the same men who claim that slaves are not humans have no problem having
intercourse with these "non-humans." This sends an inconsistent message to both
slaves and British citizens here in the West Indies.|
injustices have been met with resistance. We have heard about an uprising in the
Virgin Islands in which two women severed their own hands in protest (60). Also, women are more vocal in their opposition
to slavery, as they are less likely to be flogged by their masters because of
the masters' interests in maintaining healthy women for breeding. Women often
collect all the goods allotted to slaves on a plantation and redistribute them
fairly (61). They are becoming a strong voice,
although every uprising has been defeated. Slaves and their owners both hope
that Parliament acts soon, as the local magistrate is having a difficult time
keep me informed as to both your continued efforts, as well as any news
concerning Parliament. I hope and pray that this vile institution will be
Joined: May 14 2006
Posted: Feb 13 2013 at 7:36pm
wow, so severing hands might have been more common than I thought.
Joined: Jun 29 2011
Posted: Feb 13 2013 at 10:26pm
| pattigurlatl wrote:|
This is the first I have ever heard of that evil bitch. Thanks blaque.
I've heard of her devilish a$$ before on the History Channel.
Joined: Jul 17 2008
Posted: Feb 22 2013 at 11:29pm
Lynch Mob Attacked Postmaster Frazier Baker And Family On This Day In 1898
Although the term “lynching” conjures for most the stirring image of a
person being hanged, the act itself has a wider meaning. Taking one’s
life without legal authority and by means of show of force in numbers
also captures the term’s overall defintion. The heinous practice wasn’t a
bane exclusive to African Americans — as many Whites were lynched as
well — but Black people certainly suffered the most-brutal examples. One
such horrific case is that of Postmaster Frazier Baker,
a federally appointed postmaster in the largely White town of Lake
City, Sc. Baker and his infant daughter were killed by a mob of Whites
on this day in 1898.
SEE ALSO: El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X) Assassinated On This Day 48 Years Ago
In the early morning hours, Baker was awoken by a fire set
deliberately to the building that housed both his family’s home and the
town’s post office. Baker, his wife Lavinia (pictured
third from left), and their six children (pictured) were trapped by the
blaze and a heavily armed mob of White men out in front of the building.
After attempting to stamp out the fire, Baker and his family tried to
escape the post office.
The men opened fire on the family, fatally wounding Baker. The men
continued shooting, injuring three of Baker’s oldest children.
As the children escaped via an open door, Lavinia and baby
Julia attempted to follow but the mob shot Baker’s wife through the hand
and killed the baby.
Suffering a wound to her leg, Lavinia collapsed in the burning building before neighbors came to her and the family’s rescue.
The murder of the federally appointed Baker angered many around the nation and galvanized the anti-lynching movement.
Newspapers from around the country reported on the murder, and the incident even received a bit of global attention.
Baker’s lynching was a cowardly act and was reportedly
sparked by prejudiced Whites who didn’t think a Black man deserved the
post he was given.
The response to the Baker case was truly an anomaly, seeing as violence against Black people typically happened without justice.
According to research compiled by Auburn University history professor David C. Carter,
the Baker case began a potentially vital rally that was later snuffed
out due to the reluctance of Whites to show favor to Blacks in any
After a government investigation, federal prosecutors
gathered 13 White men in federal court in the city of Charleston on
charges of conspiracy against Baker 14 months after the incident.
South Carolina authorities and their failure to bring Baker’s killers
to justice prompted the government involvement, which built a strong
case for conviction. However, since witnesses lied on the stand and
White jurors reportedly looked to protect the men associated with the
murder, the case was later declared a mistrial.
Even with support from well-meaning folks of all walks of
life across the country, the Baker family survivors would never get
Those calling for an end to lynching and racist tactics used Baker as
a rallying moment, but the South’s hold on the legal system and its
separatist aims won out overall.
An abolitionist, William Loyd Garrison II — along with concerned
African Americans — encouraged the Bakers to relocate to Massachusetts
in 1899. Sadly, Lavinia would take her children up north only to lose
every single one to tuberculosis.
Lavinia would end up returning to South Carolina and dying — both childless and husbandless — in 1947.
Baker’s lynching serves as one of the many painful reminders that
African Americans and their time in this country has not been utopian.
What remains in the wake of America’s racist past is that there is an
even greater unspoken debt that still must be paid.