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How White People Got So Rich

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Topic: How White People Got So Rich
Posted By: trudawg
Subject: How White People Got So Rich
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 9:34pm
Well worth the read. Although its a FOI centered article, they make excellent points. The article explains the source of the income gap between blacks and whites in the US.
Ex.) The median net worth of whites is $100k whereas for blacks it's $5k.
It goes on to say that 80% of white wealth is legacy wealth inherited from Past generations.


Hard Work or Hardly Working? How White People Got So Rich

By the Historical Research Department of the Nation of Islam | Last updated: Jun 13, 2011 - 7:33:21 AM

http://www.addthis.com/bookmark.php?v=250&pub=all4734" rel="nofollow">Bookmark and Share

http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/contactus/contactus.shtml" rel="nofollow - What's your opinion on this article?

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“The foundation of American White supremacy sits tenuously on a rickety base of lies and deceptions about how Whites gained their wealth and status. A century and a half after slavery the median wealth of White families is $100,000; for Black families, it's $5,000. The belief that Whites achieved this 20-1 wealth advantage by HARD WORK is an absurd and a historical fantasy.”


(FinalCall.com) - The foundation of American White supremacy sits tenuously on a rickety base of lies and deceptions about how Whites gained their wealth and status. A century and a half after slavery the median wealth of White families is $100,000; for Black families, it's $5,000. The belief that Whites achieved this 20-1 wealth advantage by HARD WORK is an absurd and a historical fantasy. Nonetheless, the airwaves are filled with the self-righteous pronouncements of Caucasian commentators anxious to “advise” Blacks to “work hard” and to “pull themselves up by their bootstraps” if they want to succeed in America. Not only do they seek to invent a fraudulent fairy tale that whitewashes a very bloody legacy, but they also aim to reaffirm the notion that “non-Whites” are naturally inferior and lazy and are thus responsible for having comparatively nothing. The truth is a whole lot nastier than that.

The group that has always posed as the “best friends of Black people” is most fond of making this argument, yet the Jews are guilty of the worst abuses of the slavery and Jim Crow systems of White empowerment. Any reader of

secret_vols_6.jpg
http://www.blacksandjews.com" rel="nofollow - The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, Vol. 2 , will discover that Jewish wealth in America was so completely dependent on Black slavery that their incessant Jewish mantra of “hard work” will be forever consigned to mythology. The mechanisms of government and private industry that were constructed to specifically hamstring Black prospects for success after slavery are extraordinary. In harmony, government and private industry, and all sectors of American society, instituted a series of White Affirmative Action programs for the benefit of WHITE EURO-AMERICANS ONLY, programs which gave them material advantages that had nothing whatever to do with either merit or “hard work.”

The Messenger of Allah, http://www.noi.org/about_the_honorable_elijah_muhammad.shtml" rel="nofollow - The Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad —The Messiah—said: “Observe the operations of the white man. He is successful. He makes no excuses for his failures. He works hard in a collective manner. You do the same.

This is the first of a four-part observation of the operations of the White man. It will take us on a journey through the reactive mind of the racial sociopaths who have worked hard in a collective manner to construct our Black American reality. And through this process we will examine just some of the acts and policies that are the nuts and bolts of the White man's dubious “superiority.”

***

native_amer_landgrab05-31-2011.jpg

“God never intended that the people of the earth go about killing each other to rob each other of their homes. It was never done by anyone but the white race.” Ultimately, the Indian Holocaust netted for the White man 2.3 billion acres of free land.
Indian Land Grab

Right from the very start the European settlers were begging their British king to destroy the “savages” faster than he already was. It was one of the reasons they listed in their Declaration of Independence that caused them to want to SEPARATE from England. Merchants, many of them Jewish, supplied the British, French, and American armies to ethnically cleanse the indigenous Native Americans from their ancient lands. Once the bloody deed was done and the murderous armies retreated, it was those merchants who surveyed and divided the land into lots and began selling them to White settlers. This land “value” was created out of thin air and these property rights were then protected by the U.S. government. Legendary American “frontiersmen” like Daniel Boone were actually surveyors in the employ of these merchants, and some of Boone's receipts are actually in Yiddish.

Later, President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830 initiated a series of massacres and wars against the Indian Nations, killing most and evicting the rest from their own land. This policy imprisoned the survivors on approximately 310 “reservations,” where they can be found today. The Messenger wrote that “The white man has left a remnant of that people for the sake of mockery and for his children to see the people their fathers conquered in taking this land of the Indians for their own land (as they call it today). God never intended that the people of the earth go about killing each other to rob each other of their homes. It was never done by anyone but the white race.” Ultimately, the Indian Holocaust netted for the White man 2.3 billion acres of free land.

Dawes Act

Massachusetts congressman Henry L. Dawes drafted federal legislation enacted in 1887 which ordered the “registering” of Indians so that they could receive an allotment of their own land! But to get on the “Dawes Rolls,” Native Americans had to anglicize their names. This allowed White officials to slip the names of their relatives and friends onto the Dawes Rolls and reap millions of acres of land. In one state alone, the 138 million acres of Indian-held land at the time of the Dawes Act in 1887 had been reduced to 47 million acres by 1934, when the Act was repealed.

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'Everything you see in the western world—its cities, institutions, and wealth—is built on Black slavery.'

Slavery

Everything you see in the western world—its cities, institutions, and wealth—is built on Black slavery. Paris, Rome, London, New York—name the place, and its riches are built on the backs of the Black man and woman. http://www.finalcall.com/www.blacksandjews.com" rel="nofollow - The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, Vols. 1 and 2 , and the next ten thousand Final Call issues could only begin to elaborate on that statement but let us just take the most celebrated and iconic American—George Washington. At one point in his ignominious life, he held 216 Black Africans—92 of them children (this high ratio of children to adults indicates Washington was a slave-breeder). What could one do today with that many lifelong unpaid employees?

Jim Crow Laws

The so-called Jim Crow laws were simply reconstituted Slave Laws and they applied throughout America, in the South and North. Their aim was not to keep Blacks from “White” drinking fountains and toilets, or even to stop them from breaking the law—but to keep Blacks from accumulating property, starting businesses, engaging in trade and commerce, and establishing an independent economic base and to force them back to the cotton plantations. Whites, having “legally” eliminated all competition from the most productive people on earth, benefitted immensely from these repressive American racial restrictions.

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Religious Policy: The Hamitic Myth

The foundation for nearly all of America's most destructive acts and policies has been a religious one—from the “just wars” and “manifest destiny” used to justify the Holocaust against the Indians, to the cross-burning violence of the Christian Ku Klux Klan. Originally, in ancient times, slavery victimized all races and peoples, but Medieval Jewish rabbis, who sought to justify the targeting of African human beings, invented a racist embellishment of the Noah story which asserted that God cursed ALL BLACK PEOPLE with black skin, thereby marking them forevermore as permanent slaves to White people. All major religions adopted this racist motif and liberally used it to justify the most profitable Caucasian enterprise in the history of the planet—the African slave trade.

White Terrorism

The Ku Klux Klan was the generic name for literally hundreds of White terrorist groups set up to force the ex-slave back in “his place” on the plantation picking the commodity at the very center of the world economy—cotton. These Ku Kluxers were not errant outlaws—they comprised White government officials, businesses, and religious leaders. The Klan openly recruited in churches and synagogues and Masonic halls, and many communities held Ku Klux Klan country fairs. Armed, robed, and hooded, often by Jewish merchants, they burnt Black businesses, farms, schools, property, and human beings—with government sanction and participation.

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Such government-sanctioned terrorism ensured that Blacks would be unable to accumulate wealth and pass it on to later generations. This is important to future White prosperity, because it has been estimated that up to 80 percent of lifetime wealth accumulation is attributable to gifts from ancestors.

Such government-sanctioned terrorism ensured that Blacks would be unable to accumulate wealth and pass it on to later generations. This is important to future White prosperity, because it has been estimated that up to 80 percent of lifetime wealth accumulation is attributable to gifts from ancestors. The KKK only waned in its influence when the U.S. government, through executions and mass incarcerations carried out by its “justice system,” took over most of the KKK's main terrorist functions.

Sharecropping

http://www.finalcall.com/www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/National_News_2/article_7151.shtml" rel="nofollow - Sharecropping is the Talmud-based economic system that was set up throughout the South to continue the benefits of Black slavery long after its legal end. The cotton profits generated by the extraordinary Black farmers called sharecroppers financed America's railroads, factories, mills, the building of the major cities, and the entire U.S. infrastructure. It is truthfully asserted that the major cities of America and the Western world were “built with bricks of cotton.” Noted scholar W.E.B. Du Bois concluded that in the 35 years after the end of slavery fully three-quarters of the wages due Black farmers had been simply stolen from them.

Compromise of 1877

The Compromise of 1877 is arguably the most devastating single event in the history of Blacks in America. That is when a group of politicians convened at the Wormley Hotel in Washington, D.C., to attempt to resolve the deadlocked presidential election of 1876 between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden. They agreed that if Hayes were awarded the presidency, he would remove the federal troops protecting the ex-slaves in the South, and the former Southern slaveholding class would be free to return to power and establish new forms of slavery without federal oversight or control. This is the exact point in American history when Whites determined that the Black man and woman would forever be a second-class citizen in all aspects of American society.

http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/Minister_Louis_Farrakhan_9/article_7746.shtml" rel="nofollow - After twelve years of “emancipation” Blacks were returned to virtual slavery, and assigned to permanent political, social, and economic inferiority . A Jewish congressman from Louisiana, William M. Levy, gave the speech that convinced the lawmakers that this wicked act that scholars call “the Great Betrayal of the Negro people” was the best policy for America.

Blacks had made great strides in developing private businesses, but the Ku Klux Klan targeted these businesses for destruction as in Rosewood, Fla. and Tulsa (Black Wall Street), Okla. and many, many other lesser-known places. Blacks lost billions in investment dollars to Whites through these acts of terror. Black businesses were often uninsured because of the racist policies of American insurance companies, so the destruction of a Black business was totally unrecoverable. Whites had no such disabilities in growing their businesses.

The most profound part of this history, however, is that on THE SAME DAY that those White politicians decided to end Black progress forever, Allah decided that The Saviour to the Black man and woman would be born. Both events—the two MOST SIGNIFICANT IN THE HISTORY OF BLACK AMERICA—happened on February 26, 1877!

Next: Continuing the list of White affirmative action programs and policies that deceptively “earned” the White man his “superiority.”

(The Historical Research Department of the Nation of Islam was established by the Honorable Minister Louis Farrakhan to support and bear witness to the teachings of the Messiah, The Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad.)

  • http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/Perspectives_1/article_7867.shtml" rel="nofollow - Hard Work or Hardly Working? How White People Got So Rich Part 1
  • http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/Perspectives_1/article_7885.shtml" rel="nofollow - Hard Work or Hardly Working? How White People Got So Rich Part 2
  • http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/Perspectives_1/article_7906.shtml" rel="nofollow - Hard Work or Hardly Working? How White People Got So Rich Part 3
  • http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/Perspectives_1/article_7944.shtml" rel="nofollow - Hard Work or Hardly Working? How White People Got So Rich Part 4




Replies:
Posted By: Bored w/Out Me?
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 9:41pm
on the backs of Our People...yeah knew that already


Posted By: ModelessDiva
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 9:42pm

$5,000?

damn.




Posted By: trudawg
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 9:47pm
Originally posted by Bored w/Out Me? Bored w/Out Me? wrote:

on the backs of Our People...yeah knew that already


yea bu they're explaining specifically how it was done and sanctioned by the federal gov't. This type of information, to my knowledge, has not been presented to show the systematic proof behind what we all knew. The article is in four (4) parts. It's extremely well worth the read, trust me!

I'm seriously considering expanding on the authors outline and writing an e-book about it. Would probably need to condense it down to a 4 minute YouTube video for some of our folks to pay attention to it though, lol


Posted By: eanaj5
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 9:59pm
i enjoyed that read. thank you Thumbs Up


Posted By: PurplePhase
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 10:03pm
thanks tru


Posted By: fckwitmeuknoigotit
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 10:15pm
Thumbs Up




Posted By: HaitianDiva64
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 10:17pm
Spank you


Posted By: ThoughtCouture
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 10:23pm
Originally posted by trudawg trudawg wrote:

This type of information, to my knowledge, has not been presented to show the systematic proof behind what we all knew.
 
actually, yes it has.
 
of course, imo, it's worth presenting again and again and again until it becomes very common knowledge among all... Thumbs Up


Posted By: PurplePhase
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 10:34pm
I agree TC ( bears repeating).

My dad always talked (and taught us) about this though.


Posted By: ThoughtCouture
Date Posted: Mar 11 2014 at 10:37pm

i don't think i saw where this article even addressed the 14th amendment (of course, the scope of which was intended to address the equal rights of newly freed slaves) and how it was systematically hijacked by corporations (terrorists) aided and abetted by the federal govt...Stern Smile

eta: to create fake corp personhood...Dead


Posted By: Az~Maverick
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 1:18am
Most of this I already knew, but to read it makes me both sad and angry. The Chinese & Koreans are in on it too. They make it almost impossible for blacks to get in on owning or even getting supplies for beauty supply stores. Middle Eastern, Pakistani, & Indians get there wealth from owning businesses right in the hood. Everyone is involved in kicking us while were down....totally fucced up Sleepy


Posted By: Alias_Avi
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 2:23am
If you guys can, please read the book http://www.amazon.com/Black-Labor-White-Wealth-Economic/dp/0966170210/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1394608971&sr=8-1&keywords=white+wealth+black+labor" rel="nofollow - Black Labor, White Wealth by Claud Anderson Thumbs Up


He actually offers solutions to our economic problem







Posted By: iliveforbhm
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 6:34am
Yeah, it was never no hardwork pays off, if you don't own nothing, no land, no resources, no minerals, and etc than no amount of hardwork can ever get you access to real wealth that would set up your descendants and your people to higher paying jobs except for the few who they DO accept. That's the sad reality of it all. Blacks were really here to be enslaved via coporations, politicians, and the big prison industry. It's a very sad state because really of the color of your skin and now when we don't have any room for them they will give us the native american treatment and wipe us out. They really aren't our friend in any form or fashion. People can be easily swayed like Hitler easily swayed the germans when he was really austrian to wipe out the jews.


Posted By: ThoughtCouture
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 8:54am
Originally posted by Alias_Avi Alias_Avi wrote:

If you guys can, please read the book http://www.amazon.com/Black-Labor-White-Wealth-Economic/dp/0966170210/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1394608971&sr=8-1&keywords=white+wealth+black+labor" rel="nofollow - Black Labor, White Wealth by Claud Anderson Thumbs Up


He actually offers solutions to our economic problem





 
i don't feel like googling.  can you touch briefly on a few of the solutions he offers?


Posted By: trudawg
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 9:16am
Originally posted by Alias_Avi Alias_Avi wrote:

If you guys can, please read the book http://www.amazon.com/Black-Labor-White-Wealth-Economic/dp/0966170210/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1394608971&sr=8-1&keywords=white+wealth+black+labor" rel="nofollow - Black Labor, White Wealth by Claud Anderson Thumbs Up


He actually offers solutions to our economic problem







Thank you! I just ordered that joint off Amazon, $10.49 shipped for a used copyWink


Posted By: Mz. Mocha
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 9:55am
Ive always wondered about those jewish people and how it seemed they had unlimited source of money throughout generations. Bitches.


Posted By: kfoxx1998
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 9:59am
Originally posted by ThoughtCouture ThoughtCouture wrote:

Originally posted by Alias_Avi Alias_Avi wrote:

If you guys can, please read the book http://www.amazon.com/Black-Labor-White-Wealth-Economic/dp/0966170210/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1394608971&sr=8-1&keywords=white+wealth+black+labor" rel="nofollow - Black Labor, White Wealth by Claud Anderson Thumbs Up

He actually offers solutions to our economic problem

 
i don't feel like googling.  can you touch briefly on a few of the solutions he offers?


I googledEmbarrassed.  Something he calls PowerNomics.  The book was written in 1994.  I'm wondering if these ideas have been put in place in specific areas.  Maybe I'll watch this later. 



Posted By: MsBMW
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 9:59am
I am going to read this..let me warm my coffee!!! 


Posted By: ThoughtCouture
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 10:03am
thanks kfoxx!!!  definately gonna set aside some time today to watch that video!Thumbs Up


Posted By: kfoxx1998
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 10:35am
I'm just glad that we're looking at this at all.  The two things we always have to remember and make sure we understand when confronted with the bullsh*t are institutional racism vs generational wealth.   We didn't just accidentally end up here w/o bootstraps to pull up. 


Posted By: kfoxx1998
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 10:36am
dp..


Posted By: trudawg
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 10:47am

Originally posted by kfoxx1998 kfoxx1998 wrote:

I'm just glad that we're looking at this at all.  The two things we always have to remember and make sure we understand when confronted with the bullsh*t are institutional racism vs generational wealth.   We didn't just accidentally end up here w/o bootstraps to pull up. 


Agreed. On a side note, there is a certain brand of intellectually conscious BHM members that I absolutely love dialoguing with, kfoxx being one of them. Honestly, it's one of the main reasons I stay on BHM. 
We need think-tanks in our communities with the ability to effectuate change within our communities. You would think with an AA president we would have back-channel opportunities to address some of these issues, but on its face, it doesn't appear so. I could be wrong, and I certainly hope I am.



Posted By: iliveforbhm
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 11:06am
Yeah, we need real think tanks and really get in tune with our African brothers across the atlantic. The wealth that is brewing rapidly is why the Chinese, Japanese, and many other people are there. If there wasn't any money to be made they would not be there for no reason. I think the whole reason they try to put fear into African Americans that Africa is horrible and wretched place to live in which many nations are not bad, but very great places to live is to keep us from attaining wealth with them. We live in America and see the corruption and how they treat others and everyone else is pimping us. It's time to switch on them and pimp them for a change.


Posted By: kfoxx1998
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 11:23am
BHM ate my postLOL

Thank you trudawg.  I feel exactly the same way. 

It definitely has to be us and this young generation on the rise now.  I feel like our black leadership is paralyzed by all the bullsh*t.   I feel it too and I'm weary of their foolishness.  Grass Roots is going to be more powerful. 

Hubby is convinced that Obama will be a very effective leader with tremendous influence once he LEAVES the white house.  I hope that is true.  I hope he walks away with one powerful thing on his mind as his legacy and that thing is black America.   I hope Michelle never fades from view like most 1st ladies.  I hope she really steps into it and becomes a beacon for little black girls.  I nod my head like he may have a point.    If I had that kind of power as an ex-President for life I guarantee I would be the 1st ex-President to be assassinated.  I would act up after how they disrespected him for 8 years.


Posted By: SeducTress
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 11:44am
Tru this is a five star thread.Beer

I read it last night. All I could do was nod my head in agreement.

I wonder how we can ignite these sort of threads.

Personally speaking, when I read and agree, I don't have much to discuss. LOL



Posted By: iliveforbhm
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 11:58am
You think President Obama is going to leave a powerful resonance after he leaves office? He might be the strategist type than. I'm still on the fence about that one, he does have the potential to do so, but how is he going to do it?


Posted By: Katrenia
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 12:02pm
They kill, steal and destroy just like their father.



Posted By: melikey
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 12:47pm
Truth mixed with garbage.


Posted By: kfoxx1998
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 1:13pm
Originally posted by iliveforbhm iliveforbhm wrote:

You think President Obama is going to leave a powerful resonance after he leaves office? He might be the strategist type than. I'm still on the fence about that one, he does have the potential to do so, but how is he going to do it?


I said my husband thinks that.  Its one of those things I can't really speculate on.  Just think I would welcome it. 

If he does the way he can do it is through his influence.  The Ex-Presidents can get the ear of anyone and they are a small elite group.  Black America issues are so far removed from a sitting President's agenda that its an area nobody can claim Obama is interfering with the new president's power.   Interference is the reason ex-Presidents stay mostly silent.  Notice how every time Bill Clinton says anything at all they try to twist it into fighting words. 

ETA:  To Answer your question YES he will leave with power.  There are very few ex-Presidents alive today and on the DL they have more influence out of office than in. 


Posted By: iliveforbhm
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 1:25pm
A lack of generational wealth is easily seen without the numbers, the numbers speak for themselves. Name a few businesses that are black own that have precious resources outside of Africa?


Posted By: ThoughtCouture
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 1:28pm
not sure how that discussion was presented but context may have been a reason some were offended...


Posted By: Alias_Avi
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 1:37pm
Well, below are a few sections that stood out to me... didn't get a chance to delve deeply into his solutions yet but I'm going to buy his book today. I'll post more when I get a chance

Originally posted by ThoughtCouture ThoughtCouture wrote:

i don't feel like googling.  can you touch briefly on a few of the solutions he offers?



"Until black America collectively aspires to acquire its own power to alter its marginal conditions, it is highly unlikely that they will ever obtain power. A plan for self-empowerment must begin with realistic analysis of blacks' assets and lead to the development of strategies to maximize their fullest potential.

True empowerment would give blacks new tools and strengths to deal with the power imbalances that today promote racism in the court system, educational institutions as well as government and private corporate sectors. These entities have no accountability to blacks, even though they exert tremendous power over blacks. They are repositories of the cultural power to whites. They have not changed through the centuries, thus, they still safe-guard the culture, heritage and social values of the original European settlers."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

"Blacks have made little relative progress from slavery to today because we still have not acquired the necessary sources of power to create positive change in our marginal conditions. People who use their individual means to build collective wealth and power understand that there is strength in numbers. Blacks have yet to recognize or act upon this truth. The black vote alone will not ensure blacks a respectable status or new role in America. The vote must be backed by a national plan of public policies specifically designed to help blacks achieve economic self-sufficiency and self-empowerment."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Dr. Claud on the "dead letter" of Civil Rights legislation



"The equal protection clause was written into the Constitution as part of the 14th Amendment in 1868. But it wasn't until 1954 that this language was interpreted to make it unconstitutional to overtly and explicitly discriminate against blacks.

The court interpreted the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments broadly and applied them to many situations unrelated to blacks. By the turn of the century, the court used the new Constitutional amendments primarily to protect the wealth of major corporations. In 1886, the Supreme Court used the 14th Amendment on equal protection and due process to abolish 230 state laws that regulated corporations. Corporate legal counselors argued that corporations were "persons" and their money was property protected by the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.

Of the 14th Amendment cases brought before the Supreme Court between 1890 and 1901, only 19 dealt with blacks, versus 288 with corporations. The court showed favor to the corporations, but it ruled against blacks in all 19 cases. The court refused to hear the majority of cases involving blacks who were openly disenfranchised, exploited, terrorized and lynched by the powerful and the wealthy. Between 1882 and 1892, approximately 2,600 blacks were lynched."


Posted By: Over_all
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 1:39pm
I read a letter I can't remember what it's called where the gov "acknowledged" it but didn't say what they were going to do to fix it.. It included alot of things slavery racism etc it makes you mad if you read it through to find out nothing fixes this from their side 


Posted By: trudawg
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 2:29pm
Originally posted by SamoneLenior SamoneLenior wrote:


I found the thread

I didn't reread the article but I did read the comments

search generational wealth gap

but now I think I may have posted another thread on it because a few comments that I remembered weren't there so maybe it was another thread I made on the same subject

and maybe offended did not apply to the thread I found.....more like dismissive


I've discovered threads that spark intellectual discussion rarely get traction on BHM unless they involve Bhey/Rey/Jay/ or some other type of Cray-cray. Just depends on who's logged on at the time.

That's why I wanted to take the time to express my appreciation for the select brand of BHM members who embrace intellectual curiosity on higher levels such as yourself.  Wink


Posted By: PurplePhase
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 2:48pm
well hmmm


Posted By: Alias_Avi
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 2:54pm
Meet Mansa Musa I of Mali
The richest human being in all history


A new study has produced an inflation-adjusted list of the richest people of all time



Mansa Musa I of Mali


By JOHN HALL

Tuesday 16 October 2012

When we think of the world’s all-time richest people, names like Bill Gates, Warren Buffet and John D Rockefeller immediately come to mind.
But few would have thought, or even heard of, Mansa Musa I of Mali – the obscure 14th century African king who was today named the richest person in all history.

With an inflation adjusted fortune of $400 billion, Mansa Musa I would have been considerably richer than the world’s current richest man, Carlos Slim, who ranks in 22nd place with a relatively paltry $68 billion.

The list, compiled by the Celebrity Net Worth website, ranks the world’s 24 richest people of all time. The list advertises itself as the top 25, but 26 names appear in the list.

Although the list spans 1000 years, some aspects of wealth appear consistent throughout history; there are no women on the list, only three members are alive today, and 14 of the top 25 are American.

The list uses the annual 2199.6 per cent rate of inflation to adjust historic fortunes – a formula that means $100 million in 1913 would be equal to £2.299.63 billion today.

Mansa Musa I ruled West Africa’s Malian Empire in the early 1300s, making his fortune by exploiting his country’s salt and gold production. Many mosques he built as a young man still stand today.

After Mansa Musa I death in 1331, however, his heirs were unable to hang on to the fortune, and it was substantially depleted by civil wars and invading armies.
Second on the list are the Rothschild family, whose descendants are still among the richest people on the planet. Starting out in banking in the late 18th Century, Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s finance house accumulated a total wealth of $350 billion. The money has since been divided between hundreds of descendants, many of whom are business leaders today.

Meanwhile John D. Rockefeller, third on the list, is the richest American to have ever lived, worth $340billion in today's USD at the time of his death in 1937.
In comparison, the poorest man on the list is 82-year-old Warren Buffett, who at his peak net worth, before he started giving his fortune to charity, was $64billion.

Here’s the full list of the ‘26 richest people of all time’:

1. Mansa Musa I, (Ruler of Malian Empire, 1280-1331) $400 billion
2. Rothschild Family (banking dynasty, 1740- ) $350 billion
3. John D Rockefeller (industrialist, 1839-1937) $340 billion
4. Andrew Carnegie (industrialist, 1835-1919) $310 billion
5. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (last Emperor of Russia, 1868-1918) $300 billion
6. Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII (last ruler of Hyderabad, 1886-1967) $236 billion
7. William the Conqueror (King of England, 1028-1087) $229.5 billion
8. Muammar Gaddafi (former Libyan leader, 1942-2011) $200 billion
9. Henry Ford (Ford Motor Company founder, 1863-1947) $199 billion
10. Cornelius Vanderbilt (industrialist, 1794-1877) $185 billion
11. Alan Rufus (Fighting companion of William the Conqueror, 1040-1093) $178.65 billion
12. Bill Gates (Founder of Microsoft, 1955- ) $136 billion
13. William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey (Norman nobleman, ??-1088) $146.13 billion
14. John Jacob Astor (businessman, 1864-1912) $121 billion
15. Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel (English nobleman, 1306-1376) £118.6 billion
16. John of Gaunt (son of Edward III, 1330-1399) £110 billion
17. Stephen Girard (shipping and banking mogul, 1750-1831) $105 billion
18. Alexander Turney Stewart (entrepreneur, 1803-1876) $90 billion
19. Henry, 1st Duke of Lancaster (English noble, 1310-1361) $85.1 billion
20. Friedrich Weyerhaeuser (timber mogul, 1834-1914) $80 billion
21. Jay Gould (railroad tycoon, 1836-1892) $71 billion
22. Carlos Slim (business magnate, 1940- ) $68 billion
23. Stephen Van Rensselaer (land owner, 1764- 1839) $68 billion
24. Marshall Field (Marshall Field & Company founder, 1834-1906) $66 billion
25. Sam Walton (Walmart founder, 1918-1992) $65billion
26. Warren Buffett (investor, 1930- ) $64billion


Posted By: trudawg
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 3:07pm
Relevant

14 Caribbean Nations Sue Former Colonizers for Slave Trade

  • http://time.com/author/dan-kedmey/" rel="nofollow - Dan Kedmey
JAMAICA-INDEPENDENCE-ANNIVERSARY The bronze sculpture "Redemption Song", depicting a man and woman emerging from a pool of water, meant to wash away the pain of slavery is seen in Kingston on June 29, 2012. MLADEN ANTONOV/AFP/Getty Images) Mladen Antonov — AFP / Getty Images

The lawsuit will demand reparations from the governments of Britain, France and the Netherlands

Fourteen Caribbean nations have http://bigstory.ap.org/article/caribbean-adopts-plan-seek-slavery-reparations" rel="nofollow - resolved to sue their former colonizers — Britain, France and the Netherlands — for lingering harms that they attribute to the slave trade.

The AP http://bigstory.ap.org/article/caribbean-adopts-plan-seek-slavery-reparations" rel="nofollow - reports that the leaders of the Caribbean Community, a regional consortium, adopted a 10-point plan that would seek an official apology, a cancelation of debts and assistance for cultural and educational institutions.

The regional consortium has hired British human rights firm Leigh Day to pursue the case. Leigh Day previously secured $21.5 million for Kenyans who were tortured under Britain’s colonial era government.




Posted By: ThoughtCouture
Date Posted: Mar 12 2014 at 5:14pm
oh yes.  i touched on the 14th amendment terrorist take over very briefly a few pages back....
 
 
Originally posted by Alias_Avi Alias_Avi wrote:

Well, below are a few sections that stood out to me... didn't get a chance to delve deeply into his solutions yet but I'm going to buy his book today. I'll post more when I get a chance

Originally posted by ThoughtCouture ThoughtCouture wrote:

i don't feel like googling.  can you touch briefly on a few of the solutions he offers?



"Until black America collectively aspires to acquire its own power to alter its marginal conditions, it is highly unlikely that they will ever obtain power. A plan for self-empowerment must begin with realistic analysis of blacks' assets and lead to the development of strategies to maximize their fullest potential.

True empowerment would give blacks new tools and strengths to deal with the power imbalances that today promote racism in the court system, educational institutions as well as government and private corporate sectors. These entities have no accountability to blacks, even though they exert tremendous power over blacks. They are repositories of the cultural power to whites. They have not changed through the centuries, thus, they still safe-guard the culture, heritage and social values of the original European settlers."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

"Blacks have made little relative progress from slavery to today because we still have not acquired the necessary sources of power to create positive change in our marginal conditions. People who use their individual means to build collective wealth and power understand that there is strength in numbers. Blacks have yet to recognize or act upon this truth. The black vote alone will not ensure blacks a respectable status or new role in America. The vote must be backed by a national plan of public policies specifically designed to help blacks achieve economic self-sufficiency and self-empowerment."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Dr. Claud on the "dead letter" of Civil Rights legislation



"The equal protection clause was written into the Constitution as part of the 14th Amendment in 1868. But it wasn't until 1954 that this language was interpreted to make it unconstitutional to overtly and explicitly discriminate against blacks.

The court interpreted the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments broadly and applied them to many situations unrelated to blacks. By the turn of the century, the court used the new Constitutional amendments primarily to protect the wealth of major corporations. In 1886, the Supreme Court used the 14th Amendment on equal protection and due process to abolish 230 state laws that regulated corporations. Corporate legal counselors argued that corporations were "persons" and their money was property protected by the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.

Of the 14th Amendment cases brought before the Supreme Court between 1890 and 1901, only 19 dealt with blacks, versus 288 with corporations. The court showed favor to the corporations, but it ruled against blacks in all 19 cases. The court refused to hear the majority of cases involving blacks who were openly disenfranchised, exploited, terrorized and lynched by the powerful and the wealthy. Between 1882 and 1892, approximately 2,600 blacks were lynched."


Posted By: Alias_Avi
Date Posted: Mar 13 2014 at 3:09pm
What every human being should know, Black and otherwise...



Originally posted by The Nation The Nation wrote:


How Slavery Made the Modern World

Slavery was the flywheel on which America’s market revolution turned—not just in the United States, but in all of the Americas.

http://www.thenation.com/authors/greg-grandin" rel="nofollow - Greg Grandin
February 24, 2014  
http://www.thenation.com/sites/default/files/shackles_ap_img.jpg" rel="nofollow">Shackles

A nineteenth-century bilboes for an adult, typically found on slave ships. (AP Photo/Manuel Balce Ceneta)

This article originally appeared at http://www.tomdispatch.com/blog/175810/" rel="nofollow - TomDispatch.com . To stay on top of important articles like these, sign up to receive the https://app.e2ma.net/app/view:Join/signupId:43308/acctId:25612" rel="nofollow - latest updates from TomDispatch.com .

Many in the United States were outraged by the remarks of conservative evangelical preacher Pat Robertson, who blamed Haiti’s catastrophic 2010 earthquake on Haitians for selling their souls to Satan. Bodies were still being pulled from the rubble—as many as 300,000 died—when Robertson went on TV and http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/01/13/haiti.pat.robertson/" rel="nofollow - gave his viewing audience a little history lesson: the Haitians had been “under the heel of the French” but they “got together and swore a pact to the devil. They said, ‘We will serve you if you will get us free from the French.’ True story. And so, the devil said, ‘OK, it’s a deal.’”

A supremely callous example of right-wing idiocy? Absolutely. Yet in his own kooky way, Robertson was also onto something. Haitians did, in fact, swear a pact with the devil for their freedom. Only Beelzebub arrived smelling not of sulfur, but of Parisian cologne.

Haitian slaves began to throw off the “heel of the French” in 1791, when they rose up and, after bitter years of fighting, eventually declared themselves free. Their French masters, however, refused to accept Haitian independence. The island, after all, had been an extremely profitable sugar producer, and so Paris offered Haiti a choice: compensate slave owners for lost property—their slaves (that is, themselves)—or face its imperial wrath. The fledgling nation was forced to finance this payout with usurious loans from French banks. As late as 1940, 80 percent of the government budget was still going to http://www.amazon.com/dp/1250002362/ref=nosim/?tag=tomdispatch-20" rel="nofollow - service this debt.

In the on-again, off-again debate that has taken place in the United States over the years about paying reparations for slavery, opponents of the idea insist that there is no precedent for such a proposal. But there is. It’s just that what was being paid was reparations-in-reverse, which has a venerable pedigree. After the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the US, London reimbursed Southern planters more than a million dollars for having encouraged their slaves to run away in wartime. Within the United Kingdom, the British government also http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/27/britain-slave-trade" rel="nofollow - paid a small fortune to British slave owners, including the ancestors of Britain’s current Prime Minister, David Cameron, to compensate for abolition (which Adam Hochschild calculated in his 2005 book http://www.amazon.com/dp/0618619070/ref=nosim/?tag=tomdispatch-20" rel="nofollow - Bury the Chains to be “an amount equal to roughly 40 percent of the national budget then, and to about $2.2 billion today”).

Advocates of reparations—made to the descendants of enslaved peoples, not to their owners—tend to calculate the amount due based on the negative impact of slavery. They want to redress either unpaid wages during the slave period or injustices that took place after formal abolition (including debt servitude and exclusion from the benefits extended to the white working class by the New Deal). According to http://books.google.com/books?id=B2IhPX0LdewC&pg=PA428&dq=%20percent22222,505,049%20percent22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=65P_UvC-E6jhyQH8qAE&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=222%20percent2C505%20percent2C049&f=false" rel="nofollow - one estimate , for instance, 222,505,049 hours of forced labor were performed by slaves between 1619 and 1865, when slavery was ended. Compounded at interest and calculated in today’s currency, this adds up to trillions of dollars.

But back pay is, in reality, the least of it. The modern world owes its very existence to slavery.

Voyage of the Blind

Consider, for example, the way the advancement of medical knowledge was http://books.google.com/books?id=G2-WBp1IMtgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=medicine+and+slavery&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HIYEU9fhA4aayQG604GQDw&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=medicine%20percent20and%20percent20slavery&f=false" rel="nofollow - paid for with the lives of slaves.

The death rate on the trans-Atlantic voyage to the New World was staggeringly high. Slave ships, however, were more than floating tombs. They were floating laboratories, offering researchers a chance to examine the course of diseases in fairly controlled, quarantined environments. Doctors and medical researchers could take advantage of high mortality rates to identify a bewildering number of symptoms, classify them into diseases and hypothesize about their causes.

Corps of doctors tended to slave ports up and down the Atlantic seaboard. Some of them were committed to relieving suffering; others were simply looking for ways to make the slave system more profitable. In either case, they http://www.amazon.com/Doctors-Slaves-Medical-Demographic-1680-1834/dp/0521259657" rel="nofollow - identified types of fevers, learned how to decrease mortality and increase fertility, experimented with how much water was needed for optimum numbers of slaves to survive on a diet of salted fish and beef jerky, and identified the best ratio of caloric intake to labor hours. Priceless epidemiological information on a range of diseases—malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, dysentery, typhoid, cholera, and so on—was gleaned from the bodies of the dying and the dead.

When slaves couldn’t be kept alive, their autopsied bodies still provided useful information. Of course, as the writer Harriet Washington has demonstrated in her stunning http://www.amazon.com/dp/076791547X/ref=nosim/?tag=tomdispatch-20" rel="nofollow - Medical Apartheid , such experimentation continued long after slavery ended: in the 1940s, one doctor said that the “future of the Negro lies more in the research laboratory than in the schools.” As late as the 1960s, another researcher, reminiscing in a speech given at Tulane Medical School, said that it was “cheaper to use Brotha Mans than cats because they were everywhere and cheap experimental animals.”

Medical knowledge slowly filtered out of the slave industry into broader communities, since slavers made no proprietary claims on the techniques or data that came from treating their slaves. For instance, an epidemic of blindness that broke out in 1819 on the French slaver Rôdeur, which had sailed from Bonny Island in the Niger Delta with about seventy-two slaves on board, helped eye doctors identify the causes, patterns and symptoms of what is today known as trachoma.

The disease first appeared on the Rôdeur not long after it set sail, initially in the hold among the slaves and then on deck. In the end, it blinded all the voyagers except one member of the crew. According to a passenger’s account, sightless sailors worked under the direction of that single man “like machines” tied to the captain with a thick rope. “We were blind—stone blind, drifting like a wreck upon the ocean,” he recalled. Some of the sailors went mad and tried to drink themselves to death. Others retired to their hammocks, immobilized. Each “lived in a little dark world of his own, peopled by shadows and phantasms. We did not see the ship, nor the heavens, nor the sea, nor the faces of our comrades.”

But they could still hear the cries of the blinded slaves in the hold.

This went on for ten days, through storms and calms, until the voyagers heard the sound of another ship. The Spanish slaver San León had drifted alongside the Rôdeur. But the entire crew and all the slaves of that ship, too, had been blinded. When the sailors of each vessel realized this “horrible coincidence,” they fell into a silence “like that of death.” Eventually, the San León drifted away and was never heard from again.

The Rôdeur’s one seeing mate managed to pilot the ship to Guadeloupe, an island in the Caribbean. By now, a few of the crew, including the captain, had regained some of their vision. But thirty-nine of the Africans hadn’t. So before entering the harbor the captain decided to drown them, tying weights to their legs and throwing them overboard. The ship was insured and their loss would be covered: the practice of insuring slaves and slave ships meant that slavers weighed the benefits of a dead slave versus living labor and acted accordingly.

Events on the Rôdeur caught the attention of Sébastien Guillié, chief of medicine at Paris’s Royal Institute for Blind Youth. He wrote up his findings—which included a discussion of the disease’s symptoms, the manner in which it spread, and best treatment options—and published them in Bibliothèque Ophtalmologique, which was then http://books.google.com/books?id=lSg4AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA328&dq=%20percent22A+Manual+of+the+Diseases+of+the+Eye%20percent22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=R6gDU8GzO8ecyQGO0oD4BQ&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=french&f=false" rel="nofollow - cited in other medical journals as well as in an 1846 US textbook, A Manual of the Diseases of the Eye.

Slaves spurred forward medicine in other ways, too. Africans, for instance, were the primary victims of smallpox in the New World and were also indispensable to its eradication. In the early 1800s, Spain ordered that all its American subjects be vaccinated against the disease, but didn’t provide enough money to carry out such an ambitious campaign. So doctors turned to the one institution that already reached across the far-flung Spanish Empire: slavery. They transported the live smallpox vaccine in the arms of Africans being moved along slave routes as cargo from one city to another to be sold: doctors chose one slave from a consignment, made a small incision in his or her arm, and inserted the vaccine (a mixture of lymph and pus containing the cowpox virus). A few days after the slaves set out on their journey, pustules would appear in the arm where the incision had been made, providing the material to perform the procedure on yet another slave in the lot—and then another and another until the consignment reached its destination. Thus the smallpox vaccine was disseminated through Spanish America, saving countless lives.

Slavery’s Great Schism

In 1945, Allied troops marched into the first of the Nazi death camps. What they saw inside, many have remarked, forced a radical break in the West’s moral imagination. The Nazi genocide of Jews, one scholar has http://books.google.com/books?id=JRzbAE2mYG4C&pg=PA121&dq=%20percent22black+hole%20percent22+holocaust+moral+ethical+horowitz+sara&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jpEEU6mFM8akyAHhg4CwBQ&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%20percent22black%20percent20hole%20percent22%20percent20holocaust%20percent20moral%20percent20ethical%20percent20horowitz%20percent20sara&f=false" rel="nofollow - written , is history’s “black hole,” swallowing up all the theological, ethical and philosophical certainties that had earlier existed.

Yet before there was the Holocaust, there was slavery, an institution that also transformed the West’s collective consciousness, as I’ve tried to show in my new book, http://www.amazon.com/dp/0805094539/ref=nosim/?tag=tomdispatch-20" rel="nofollow - The Empire of Necessity: Slavery, Freedom, and Deception in the New World .

Take, for example, the case of the Joaquín, a Portuguese frigate that left Mozambique in late 1803 with 301 enslaved East Africans. Nearly six months later, when a port surgeon opened the ship’s hatch in Montevideo, Uruguay, he was sickened by what he saw: only thirty-one bone-thin survivors in a foul, bare room, otherwise empty save for hundreds of unused shackles.

City officials convened a commission of inquiry to explain the deaths of the other 270 slaves, calling on the expertise of five surgeons—two British doctors, a Spaniard, a Swiss Italian and one from the United States. The doctors testified that before boarding the Joaquín, the captives would have felt extreme anguish, having already been forced to survive on roots and bugs until arriving on the African coast emaciated and with their stomachs distended. Then, once on the ocean, crowded into a dark hold with no ventilation, they would have had nothing to do other than listen to the cries of their companions and the clanking of their chains. Many would have gone mad trying to make sense of their situation, trying to ponder “the imponderable.” The surgeons decided that the East Africans had died from dehydration and chronic diarrhea, aggravated by the physical and psychological hardships of slavery—from, that is, what they called “nostalgia,” “melancholia,” and “cisma,” a Spanish word that loosely means brooding or mourning.

The collective opinion of the five surgeons—who represented the state of medical knowledge in the US, Great Britain, and Spain—reveals the way slavery helped in what might be called the disenchanting of medicine. In it you can see how doctors dealing with the slave trade began taking concepts like melancholia out of the hands of priests, poets, and philosophers and giving them actual medical meaning.

Prior to the arrival of the Joaquín in Montevideo, for instance, the Royal Spanish Academy was still associating melancholia with actual nighttime demon possession. Cisma literally meant schism, a theological concept Spaniards used to refer to the spiritual split personality of fallen man. The doctors investigating the Joaquín, however, used these concepts in a decidedly secular, matter-of-fact manner and in ways that unmistakably affirmed the humanity of slaves. To diagnose enslaved Africans as suffering from nostalgia and melancholia was to acknowledge that they had selves that could be lost, inner lives that could suffer schism or alienation, and pasts over which they could mourn.

Two decades after the incident involving the Joaquín, the Spanish medical profession no longer thought melancholia to be caused by an incubus, but considered it a type of delirium, often related to seasickness. Medical dictionaries would later describe the condition in terms similar to those used by critics of the Middle Passage—as caused by rancid food, too close contact, extreme weather, and above all the “isolation” and “uniform and monotonous life” one experiences at sea. As to nostalgia, one Spanish dictionary came to define it as “a violent desire compelling those taken out of their country to return home.”

It was as if each time a doctor threw back a slave hatch to reveal the human-made horrors below, it became a little bit more difficult to blame mental illness on demons.

In the case of the Joaquín, however, the doctors didn’t extend the logic of their own reasoning to the slave trade and condemn it. Instead, they focused on the hardships of the Middle Passage as a technical concern. “It is in the interests of commerce and humanity,” said the Connecticut-born, Edinburgh-educated John Redhead, “to get slaves off their ships as soon as possible.”

Follow the Money

Slavery transformed other fields of knowledge as well. For instance, centuries of buying and selling human beings, of shipping them across oceans and continents, of defending, excoriating, or trying reform the practice, revolutionized both Christianity and secular law, giving http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=35391" rel="nofollow - rise to what we think of as modern human rights law.

In the realm of economics, the importance of slaves went well beyond the wealth generated from their uncompensated labor. Slavery was the flywheel on which America’s market revolution turned—not just in the United States, but in all of the Americas.

Starting in the 1770s, Spain began to deregulate the slave trade, hoping to establish what merchants, not mincing any words, called a “free trade in blacks.” Decades before slavery exploded in the United States (following the War of 1812 with Great Britain), the slave population increased dramatically in Spanish America. Enslaved Africans and African Americans slaughtered cattle and sheared wool on the pampas of Argentina, spun cotton and wove clothing in textile workshops in Mexico City, and planted coffee in the mountains outside Bogotá. They fermented grapes for wine at the foot of the Andes and boiled Peruvian sugar to make candy. In Guayaquil, Ecuador, enslaved shipwrights built cargo vessels that were used for carrying more slaves from Africa to Montevideo. Throughout the thriving cities of mainland Spanish America, slaves worked, often for wages, as laborers, bakers, brick makers, liverymen, cobblers, carpenters, tanners, smiths, rag pickers, cooks, and servants.

It wasn’t just their labor that spurred the commercialization of society. The http://www.amazon.com/dp/0691142777/ref=nosim/?tag=tomdispatch-20" rel="nofollow - driving of more and more slaves inland and across the continent, the opening up of new slave routes and the expansion of old ones, tied hinterland markets together and created local circuits of finance and trade. Enslaved peoples were investments (purchased and then rented out as laborers), credit (used to secure loans), property, commodities, and capital, making them an odd mix of abstract and concrete value. Collateral for loans and items for speculation, slaves were also objects of nostalgia, mementos of a fading aristocratic world even as they served as the coin for the creation of a new commercialized one.

Slaves literally made money: working in Lima’s mint, they trampled quicksilver into ore with their bare feet, pressing toxic mercury into their bloodstream in order to amalgamate the silver used for coins. And they were money—at least in a way. It wasn’t that the value of individual slaves was standardized in relation to currency, but that slaves were quite literally the standard. When appraisers calculated the value of any given hacienda, or estate, slaves usually accounted for over half of its worth; they were, that is, much more valuable than inanimate capital goods like tools and millworks.

In the United States, scholars have http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-01-24/how-slavery-led-to-modern-capitalism-echoes.html" rel="nofollow - demonstrated that profit wasn’t made just from Southerners selling the cotton that slaves picked or the cane they cut. Slavery was central to the establishment of the industries that today dominate the US economy: finance, insurance, and real estate. And historian Caitlan Rosenthal has http://hbr.org/2013/09/plantations-practiced-modern-management/ar/1" rel="nofollow - shown how Caribbean slave plantations helped pioneer “accounting and management tools, including depreciation and standardized efficiency metrics, to manage their land and their slaves”—techniques that were then used in northern factories.

Slavery, as the historian Lorenzo Green http://books.google.com/books?id=rJ-_1mmkDwYC&pg=PA40&dq=formed+the+very+basis+of+the+economic+life+of+New+England:++about+it+revolved,+and+on+it+depended,+most+of+her+other+industries&hl=en&sa=X&ei=l5H_Uq_iN-SbygHploCIDQ&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=formed%20percent20the%20percent20very%20percent20basis%20percent20of%20percent20the%20percent20economic%20percent20life%20percent20of%20percent20New%20percent20England%20percent3A%20percent20%20percent20about%20percent20it%20percent20revolved%20percent2C%20percent20and%20percent20on%20percent20it%20percent20depended%20percent2C%20percent20most%20percent20of%20percent20her%20percent20other%20percent20industries&f=false" rel="nofollow - argued half a century ago, “formed the very basis of the economic life of New England: about it revolved, and on it depended, most of her other industries.” Fathers grew wealthy building slave ships or selling fish, clothing, and shoes to slave islands in the Caribbean; when they died, they left their money to sons who “built factories, chartered banks, incorporated canal and railroad enterprises, invested in government securities, and speculated in new financial instruments.” In due course, they donated to build libraries, lecture halls, botanical gardens, and universities, as Craig Steven Wilder has revealed in his new book, http://www.amazon.com/dp/1596916818/ref=nosim/?tag=tomdispatch-20" rel="nofollow - Ebony and Ivy .

In Great Britain, historians have http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/27/britain-slave-trade" rel="nofollow - demonstrated how the “reparations” paid to slave-owning families “fuelled industry and the development of merchant banks and marine insurance, and how it was used to build country houses and to amass art collections.”

https://subscribe.thenation.com/servlet/OrdersGateway?cds_mag_code=NAN&cds_page_id=122425&cds_response_key=I12SART1" rel="nofollow - Please support our journalism. Get a digital subscription for just $9.50!

Follow the money, as the saying goes, and you don’t even have to move very far along the financial trail to begin to see the wealth and knowledge amassed through slavery. To this day, it remains all around us, in our museums, courts, places of learning and worship, and doctors’ offices. Even the tony clothier, Brooks Brothers (founded in New York in 1818), http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/08/26/17-major-companies-never-knew-benefited-slavery/7/" rel="nofollow - got its start selling coarse slave clothing to Southern plantations. It now http://www.brooksbrothers.com/on/demandware.store/Sites-brooksbrothers-Site/default/AboutUs-Show" rel="nofollow - describes itself as an “institution that has shaped the American style of dress.”

Fever Dreams and the Bleached Bones of the Dead

In the United States, the reparations debate faded away with the 2008 election of Barack Obama—except as an idea that continues to haunt the fever dreams of the right-wing imagination. A significant part of the backlash against the president is driven by the fantasy that he is presiding over a radical redistribution of wealth— http://gawker.com/5947133/the-obama-phone-program-has-nothing-to-do-with-obama" rel="nofollow - think of all those free cell phones that the Drudge Report says he’s handing out to African-Americans!—part of a stealth plan to carry out reparations by any means possible.

“What they don’t know,” http://www.rushlimbaugh.com/daily/2009/07/22/trouble_brews_on_sharpton_show" rel="nofollow - said Rush Limbaugh shortly after Obama’s inauguration, “is that Obama’s entire economic program is reparations.” The conservative National Legal Policy Center recently raised the specter of “slavery reparations courts”—Black Jacobin tribunals presided over by the likes of Jesse Jackson, Louis Farrakhan, Al Sharpton and Russell Simmons and empowered to levy a $50,000 tax on every white “man, woman, and child in this country.” It’s time to rescue the discussion of reparations from the swamp of talk radio and the comment sections of the conservative blogosphere.

The idea that slavery made the modern world is not new, though it seems that every generation has to rediscover that truth anew. Almost a century ago, in 1915, W.E.B Du Bois http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/dbn/dbn11.htm" rel="nofollow - wrote , “Raphael painted, Luther preached, Corneille wrote, and Milton sung; and through it all, for four hundred years, the dark captives wound to the sea amid the bleaching bones of the dead; for four hundred years the sharks followed the scurrying ships; for four hundred years America was strewn with the living and dying millions of a transplanted race; for four hundred years Ethiopia stretched forth her hands unto God.”

How would we calculate the value of what we today would call the intellectual property—in medicine and other fields—generated by slavery’s suffering? I’m not sure. But a revival of efforts to do so would be a step toward reckoning with slavery’s true legacy: our modern world.




Posted By: Alias_Avi
Date Posted: Mar 13 2014 at 3:13pm
Quote

You don't have to worry about reparations. This is merely an intellectual exercise. Everybody knows black people will NEVER be compensated for what happened to them. Everybody knows that white people can barely talk about the legacy of slavery, do not, in the majority, understand its true implications and nearly always, whenever anyone brings it up, tell black people they are living in the past and they should just forget about all that. Tsk, tsk. We've got a black president now, we've come a long way, my family wasn't even in the country when that happened, etc., etc.. So, don't worry, Nico, reparations are not really on the table.

I appreciate articles like this because I think it's important to at least TALK about what happened. Let's have some truth and reconciliation. What's more to your point, I would say that the issues of inequality in the United States are deeply rooted in slavery and the re-enslavement of black people during the so-called Jim Crow era. It was necessary to create a discourse justifying slavery in a country whose framers declared 'We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness' (Such beautiful, eloquent words, such an incredibly radical idea worthy of pursuit!) That discourse was racism. Racism and fear that black people are going to come and take yours-which is kind of the vibe that I'm picking up from your post, although that's probably not what you meant- has been used as a wedge again and again. The social safety net has been dismantled because of that kind of propositional framing. Remember the strapping young bucks buying steaks on welfare money conjured by Reagan? - well his speechwriters, at least. It seemed that this was something that only affected black people but in the end it was all of us. And so this is American history. We might not like to look at it because it embarrasses us, but damn, I never thought about how slavery underpinned so many things. Medical science? That's kind of like the guy doing those experiments in the Nazi camps. It's awful to think that human beings were sacrificed this way and do we continue to do this today because somehow we've got it in our heads even at a level that we may not be aware of because it's so ingrained, that some folks just aren't folks? (Trayvon, Rashinda, Jordan) I'd like to know about that, I think it's important and of course people look at that horrible wrong and think money can make up for that (and people at root, I think, are afraid that blacks are going to come and take it all away from us!) but I really don't think it can. It was too big, too horrible. But at least we can talk about how we're all the white chick sitting pretty on that black chick's back in that photo that made everybody so uncomfortable (it was printed out of context and people really misunderstood what the artist was trying to say). Maybe we're not so exceptional and other people are not so horrible and we should talk about better policies for everyone, like you say, but not expect black people to live with white people's cognitive dissonance and pretend that slavery has no legacy.



Posted By: trudawg
Date Posted: Mar 16 2014 at 2:46am
Got my book in the mail today. Haven't been able to put it down all evening




Posted By: Alias_Avi
Date Posted: Mar 16 2014 at 12:27pm
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