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The Official Black History Thread!!!! (GREAT READ)

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Printed Date: Jun 17 2018 at 5:39pm


Topic: The Official Black History Thread!!!! (GREAT READ)
Posted By: NancyTrillosi
Subject: The Official Black History Thread!!!! (GREAT READ)
Date Posted: Jul 24 2010 at 11:37pm
Tell us stuff about black history that you think or know white folks lied about...

Or just drop some really important little known facts about BLACK history in this mug...

But yeah...

Let me know something...

*waits*



Replies:
Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 24 2010 at 11:42pm
Patrice LaMumba was executed by the US. It was ordered by the CIA who at the time was under the direction of Bush Sr.

His body was dissolved in a vat of sulphur.



Our US government tried to blackmail Coretta Scott King by sending her pictures of the white woman her husband was sleeping with. They wanted her to convince MLK Jr. to commit suicide as his popularity had gained incredible momentum.

I've mentioned this before but traditionally it is not the color 'black' that is worn to funerals. It is white.

For those who live in Atlanta, the very popular area called "Buckhead" with all its glitz and glam was actually named such because white men used to bring their wives and children and literally chase and eventually murder young "bucks" and that was their neighborhood festival.

I have more but I'm at work.


Posted By: Eden.
Date Posted: Jul 24 2010 at 11:45pm
oh my oh my.

anybody want to add some jamaican black history to the mix for some young yardies?

mek mi kno sumptin too


Posted By: NancyTrillosi
Date Posted: Jul 24 2010 at 11:46pm
All colored persons history is welcomed in here...

Not just American blacks...

I want everyone to gain something from this...

LOL @ me saying colored...

The hell...LOL


Posted By: nycdiva357
Date Posted: Jul 24 2010 at 11:47pm
um.... if I hear one more person saying "they gave us black history month.in February....b/c its the shortest month of the yr"
I'm liable to kill.
 
learn the real reason BHM is in February..and shut up.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carter_G._Woodson" rel="no follow - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carter_G._Woodson


Posted By: onechase
Date Posted: Jul 24 2010 at 11:47pm
The Emancipation Proclamation That Wasn't: Abraham Lincoln In Wonderland

Every schoolchild knows that two and two is four and that Abraham Lincoln freed the slaves.

The arithmetic is sound, but the history is false.

Abraham Lincoln was not the great emancipator or the small emancipator or the economy-sized emancipator.

And contrary to what almost all kindergartens and universities have taught for the last 136 years, the Emancipation Proclamation did not free the slaves and was never intended to free the slaves

Nobody knew this better than Lincoln, who deliberately drafted the document so that it "freed" the slaves in Confederate-controlled areas where he couldn't free them and left them in slavery in Union-held areas where he could have freed them.

To make sure there was no confusion about what he was doing, Lincoln said in the document that he was personally excluding slaves in 13 Louisiana parishes, including New Orleans, seven Virginia counties, including Norfolk, and 48 West Virginia counties. Also excluded by order of "the great emancipator" were the 276,000 slaves in the state of Tennessee. Since the proclamation did not apply to slaves in "loyal" Border States (Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky and Delaware), the document everybody praises and nobody reads did little if any emancipating.



Posted By: RoxieDream
Date Posted: Jul 24 2010 at 11:48pm
The Bahamas celebrated their 37th Independence Day from the British at the beginning of this month  Approve 


Posted By: Doc Holiday
Date Posted: Jul 24 2010 at 11:51pm
Originally posted by pattigurlatl pattigurlatl wrote:

Patrice LaMumba was executed by the US. It was ordered by the CIA who at the time was under the direction of Bush Sr.

His body was dissolved in a vat of sulphur.



Our US government tried to blackmail Coretta Scott King by sending her pictures of the white woman her husband was sleeping with. They wanted her to convince MLK Jr. to commit suicide as his popularity had gained incredible momentum.

I've mentioned this before but traditionally it is not the color 'black' that is worn to funerals. It is white.


For those who live in Atlanta, the very popular area called "Buckhead" with all its glitz and glam was actually named such because white men used to bring their wives and children and literally chase and eventually murder young "bucks" and that was their neighborhood festival.

I have more but I'm at work.


When you have more time, I would like for you to elaborate on this.


Posted By: queencocobrown
Date Posted: Jul 24 2010 at 11:52pm
The panther 21 was tried and made into political prisoners and charged with conspiracy to blow up the New York Botanical Gardens, department stores, etc. However, the were all aqquited of all charges because the jury saw the bullshyt.


If that was not enough, months later, the panthers were raided again and killed by NYPD. The NYPD claimed that it was self defense but later evidence showed that those murdered were murdered in their sleep.


Posted By: Yardgirl
Date Posted: Jul 24 2010 at 11:54pm
Originally posted by Eden. Eden. wrote:

oh my oh my.

anybody want to add some jamaican black history to the mix for some young yardies?

mek mi kno sumptin too
Ryan Peralto Sr. paid thugs to shoot up East Kingston in the 60s. I was told that OT Williams distributed guns at a meeting at a primary school in Kingston 20


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:02am
Originally posted by Doc Holiday Doc Holiday wrote:

Originally posted by pattigurlatl pattigurlatl wrote:

Patrice LaMumba was executed by the US. It was ordered by the CIA who at the time was under the direction of Bush Sr.

His body was dissolved in a vat of sulphur.



Our US government tried to blackmail Coretta Scott King by sending her pictures of the white woman her husband was sleeping with. They wanted her to convince MLK Jr. to commit suicide as his popularity had gained incredible momentum.

I've mentioned this before but traditionally it is not the color 'black' that is worn to funerals. It is white.


For those who live in Atlanta, the very popular area called "Buckhead" with all its glitz and glam was actually named such because white men used to bring their wives and children and literally chase and eventually murder young "bucks" and that was their neighborhood festival.

I have more but I'm at work.


When you have more time, I would like for you to elaborate on this.



Let me clarify:

Historically and traditionally around the world in various non-European and non-Christian cultures, white is the color that was worn during a time of mourning. And actually in the early 1600's even European queens wore white.

However with the popularity of Christianity somewhere along the line it became the tradition to wear black and of course when Christians went to other countries to enforce their beliefs on others, eventually this practice became wide spread.

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Image:Mary_qos_mourning.jpg" rel="no follow">Mary%20Queen%20of%20Scots%20in%20deuil%20blanc%20c.%201559%20following%20the%20deaths%20of%20her%20father-in-law,%20mother,%20and%20first%20husband%20Francis%20II%20of%20France.

Africa

Bark cloth, a rough traditional http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Textile" rel="no follow - fabric , was worn in some communities to denote that family members were in mourning. White garments are also used; following the advent of Christianity, black garments were worn, following European custom.

China

The Chinese traditionally have marked deaths through wearing white, stemming from Confucian practices of long ago.


http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Mourning" rel="no follow - http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Mourning


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:06am
Alexandre Dumas was a French writer who penned one of my favorite books, The Count of Monte Cristo and more famously The Three Musketeers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dumas_by_Nadar,_1855.jpg" rel="no follow">

He was biracial of Haitian descent.

Despite Alexandre Dumas' success and aristocratic background, his being of mixed race would affect him all his life. In 1843 he wrote a short novel, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_%28novel%29" rel="no follow - Georges , that addressed some of the issues of race and the effects of colonialism. He once remarked to a man who insulted him about his mixed-race background:

"My father was a mulatto, my grandfather was a Negro, and my great-grandfather a monkey. You see, Sir, my family starts where yours ends."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alexandre_Dumas_Nadar.jpg" rel="no follow">
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alexandre_Dumas_Nadar.jpg" rel="no follow">
Alexandre Dumas, photo by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nadar_%28photographer%29" rel="no follow - Nadar .



Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:11am

Sarah E. Goode was the owner of a furniture store in Chicago, Illinois. Her claim to fame is that she was the first Black Woman to receive a patent.


Sarah%20GoodeIn an effort to help people maximize their limited space, Goode invented a Folding Cabinet Bed. The Cabinet Bed when folded up resembled a desk which included compartments for stationary and writing instruments. Goode received her patent on July 14, 1885.





Posted By: Eden.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:11am


Posted By: Eden.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:12am
another thread banger in the making.

old folks come on, get off yo goddamn rocker and post.


Posted By: Malwina
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:13am
i bet some real banal should-be-common-knowledge sh*t will be posted


Posted By: niecy
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:13am


Posted By: mocha__chai
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:14am
Originally posted by Eden. Eden. wrote:

another thread banger in the making.

old folks come on, get off yo goddamn rocker and post.


This. I'm doing a AA history course this coming semester, so I don't know that much except what I've read online or in books.


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:15am
Since I am a huge fan of using indigo to get my hair jet, jet black I was startled to find out that it was actually first used in Africa and also was a part of the slave trade. In fact, white business men first used Native Americans to work the indigo processing vats which proved to be fatally harmful to them. So they started to use black slaves. It is true that black slaves did not die off as easily as the Native Americans but they ended up suffering from all kinds of cancers and diseases. Eventually, they started to grow indigo plants in India and that is why most today think it all started with them. 


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:16am
Originally posted by Malwina Malwina wrote:

i bet some real banal should-be-common-knowledge sh*t will be posted


So you knew all this already, I take it?


Posted By: NancyTrillosi
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:18am
Originally posted by Eden. Eden. wrote:

another thread banger in the making.

old folks come on, get off yo goddamn rocker and post.


Cool Approve


Posted By: NancyTrillosi
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:19am
Originally posted by Malwina Malwina wrote:

i bet some real banal should-be-common-knowledge sh*t will be posted


Stfu and get out of my thread...

Who cares if somebody already knows it...

Somebody out here maybe be lurking that don't...

Quit being ignorant and extra...


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:26am
Some younger generation inspiration although he is my age:

Darien Dash, brother of Stacy Dash, cousin of Damon Dash

Darien Dash, Chairman, DME






Visionary CEO Darien Dash is determined to wire urban America into the digital age. As founder of DME Interactive Holdings, a multiservice firm that provides an array of Internet and network services, Dash has broken new ground on several fronts. In 2000 before its founder even turned thirty, DME became the first new technology firm owned by an African American to be traded on Wall Street. Later that year Dash engineered a deal with America Online (AOL) to launch Places of Color, an Internet service provider (ISP). Dash's phenomenal success is all the more impressive when the impulses of the industry are considered. "Our mission of expanding the hardware and software infrastructure within minority communities has been a long, hard road so far," Dash told Black Enterprise's Tariq K. Muhammad and Josee Valcourt.

Dash is reportedly worth $90 million, and is the brother of Clueless actress Stacey Dash. Born in the early 1970s and raised in Paramus, New Jersey, Dash showed a head for business at an early age. "He wouldn't loan his toys; he'd rent them," his mother, Linda Dash, told People writer Jennifer Wulff about her son's childhood. In his first year at the University of Southern California, he started his own hip-hop record label, Roc-A-Blok Records. He served as president of the university's Black Student Union on the way to earning a degree in political science and leadership. After graduation, Dash found work as a consultant to Fortune 500 companies with a specialty in new media marketing.


Posted By: Doc Holiday
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:26am
Originally posted by pattigurlatl pattigurlatl wrote:




Let me clarify:

Historically and traditionally around the world in various non-European and non-Christian cultures, white is the color that was worn during a time of mourning. And actually in the early 1600's even European queens wore white.

However with the popularity of Christianity somewhere along the line it became the tradition to wear black and of course when Christians went to other countries to enforce their beliefs on others, eventually this practice became wide spread.

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Image:Mary_qos_mourning.jpg" rel="no follow">Mary%20Queen%20of%20Scots%20in%20deuil%20blanc%20c.%201559%20following%20the%20deaths%20of%20her%20father-in-law,%20mother,%20and%20first%20husband%20Francis%20II%20of%20France.

Africa

Bark cloth, a rough traditional http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Textile" rel="no follow - fabric , was worn in some communities to denote that family members were in mourning. White garments are also used; following the advent of Christianity, black garments were worn, following European custom.

China

The Chinese traditionally have marked deaths through wearing white, stemming from Confucian practices of long ago.


http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Mourning" rel="no follow - http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Mourning


Pardon my coyness, I just wanted to make sure that you weren't overcompensating like many Afrocentrists tend to.


Posted By: laceyfront
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:28am
This thread is hella interesting and I hate normally hate history Thumbs%20Up


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:29am

HeLa cells stained with dye

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks deserves every ounce of praise that has been heaped on it. Rebecca Skloot has one heck of a story to tell, a story that actually belongs to another woman: Henrietta Lacks.


One of only a few known photos of Henrietta Lacks

The book is partially a retelling of Henrietta’s life and her death, but also a thorough chronicle of the history of HeLa cells (so named by taking the first and last two letters of the donor’s name), which were developed after Henrietta's death. These cells (pictured above) revolutionized science in so many ways it hardly seems believable that we don't have a national holiday honoring the woman. HeLa cells were invaluable in developing the polio vaccine, they were the clue to unlocking the number of chromosomes in human DNA, they were shot into space, exposed to radiation and mixed with plant cells, mice cells, cloned and still contribute every year to the development of new cancer medicine and treatment methods.

I find it hard to give any of the story away- Skloot’s retelling is passionate, articulate and adventuresome. Perhaps just a little foundation: Lacks was a young black woman, born in 1920 and raised on a tobacco farm in Clover, Virginia. She eventually married her cousin, David (Day), cousin-marrying being not uncommon among the family at the time. Day joined the rush to Baltimore to work in steel mills during the Second World War, as part of the Great Migration, and soon sent the money to bring Henrietta and their children along north as well. The family lived in Turner Station, Maryland, and their household quickly grew to include Henrietta, Day, their four children and myriad nieces, nephews, cousins or other family who might be living near the area, visiting, or simply passing through. When Henrietta was 30, shortly before she became pregnant with her fifth baby, she began to experience cramping, spotting and severe abdominal pain. She went to the free public hospital- John Hopkins- and was admitted to the "colored ward" as hospitals were just one of the public spaces still segregated in the United States at the time. Almost immediately Henrietta was diagnosed with cervical cancer. At the time of the diagnosis, her doctor, Howard Jones, took several small scrapings of her cervix and the tumor which he gave to his colleague, George Gey. Gey was experimenting with cell growth and preservation and it was not uncommon that doctors would send him samples of tissue from their various patients.

The normal treatment at the time, which Henrietta underwent, involved being anesthetized and having small vials of radium sewn into her vagina and against her cervix. After a stay in the hospital, the tumor diminished and disappeared and the radium was removed. But after only a few months her cancerous tumors came roaring back and, in October 1951, roughly 10 months after the initial diagnosis, Henrietta died in the hospital in extreme, unceasing pain— the cancer had spread everywhere and her autopsy revealed that her entire body was filled with tumors.

Though Henrietta was dead, her cancer cells certainly weren’t. The samples sent by Jones had survived in the culture medium in Gey’s lab and begun to grow and multiply at incredible rates. Soon Gey's lab could hardly contain the vials of HeLa cells. So Gey began to send them all over the world, to any researcher anywhere who requested a vial. The cells regenerated so quickly and so unbelievably, that he had a literally endless supply.

Skloot’s story covers the development of the cells into treatments and vaccines, their contributions to the field of genetics and cloning and the controversy that swirled at various points over the hyper dependency of the field on HeLa cells and their unstable nature due to their cancerous origins.

What sets this story apart from a straight, albeit fascinating, read on the cells themselves, is Skloot’s attempts to find and interview Henrietta’s family. She uncovers Deborah, Zakariyya, Sonny and Lawrence, the surviving children, as well as the story of Elsie— Henrietta’s oldest daughter who was affected by epilepsy and confined to a mental health institute where she died two years after Henrietta’s passing. Many of the children had grown up with no idea about the fate of their mother or their sister, and when they did began to uncover the truth about Henrietta’s contributions to science and medicine eventually, the initial explanations were so poorly delivered, that Skloot and others who have attempted to contact them in the last decade were met with wall upon wall of fear, anger and distrust. What is especially striking about Skloot's interactions with the four children, Day, and the legions of cousins and extended family she tracks down, is the marked ignorance of even the most basic tenets of biology. This, coupled with documented abuse in the medical community of black subjects (think Tuskegee Syphilis Study), contributed to a fear and mistrust that runs rampant in her interactions with the family, as Skloot attempts interviews and explanations over the course of several years.

For examples, none of Henrietta's children had any idea what a cell was until they were adults. Literally no clue what one looked like, contained, or was capable of— some of them up until the moment Skloot is finally sitting at their table and drawing simple diagrams. The idea that their mother’s cells continue to live and that “some part of her” is alive, or that there are clones of her in existence all over England, is an unshakable sort of fantasy that Skloot struggles to explain and dispel over and over. Their reactions vacillate wildly between pride, fear, anger, and an intense desire to sue somebody, anybody, for what they see as their rightful share of Henrietta’s contributions; Skloot records it all.

Each of the family members is given fair page space and time, and Skloot’s compassion for their personal experiences and traumas as the descendants of Henrietta Lacks is beyond compelling. Deborah, Henrietta's youngest daughter, comes around to form quite a bond with Skloot. Deborah comes alive especially as one embodying the heady mood swings of fear and confusion, coupled with deep pride and love, as their mother's story unfolds through Skloot's tireless research and patient explanations. The narrative style of journalism Skloot employees when relating her interactions with the family members results in a book that sometimes reads more like a novel, and the multi-dimensional emotions and reactions to of the Lack's family to their place in this thread of history is engrossing.

I will be the first to admit that I struggle at times to stay engaged with large texts of nonfiction, but this book is a treat of the highest order. There is so much to revel in, so many dimensions that make Henrietta’s story as rich as it is: Why do we recognize some people’s historical contributions and not others? What role has patient consent played in care, and what is the status of that question today? Can a doctor patent your cells without your permission? Does having access to an education make the strides of science and technology less threatening? In response to this last question, Skloot seems to glean from her experiences that the answer is certainly yes. As part of the publication of the book, Skloot established a foundation in Henrietta's name, the proceeds of which will be used to secure higher education for all of Henrietta's descendants who are interested in pursuing one.

So do yourself, Henrietta, and her legacy a favor and lay your hands on this book today.



Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:30am
Originally posted by Doc Holiday Doc Holiday wrote:

Originally posted by pattigurlatl pattigurlatl wrote:




Let me clarify:

Historically and traditionally around the world in various non-European and non-Christian cultures, white is the color that was worn during a time of mourning. And actually in the early 1600's even European queens wore white.

However with the popularity of Christianity somewhere along the line it became the tradition to wear black and of course when Christians went to other countries to enforce their beliefs on others, eventually this practice became wide spread.

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Image:Mary_qos_mourning.jpg" rel="no follow">Mary%20Queen%20of%20Scots%20in%20deuil%20blanc%20c.%201559%20following%20the%20deaths%20of%20her%20father-in-law,%20mother,%20and%20first%20husband%20Francis%20II%20of%20France.

Africa

Bark cloth, a rough traditional http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Textile" rel="no follow - fabric , was worn in some communities to denote that family members were in mourning. White garments are also used; following the advent of Christianity, black garments were worn, following European custom.

China

The Chinese traditionally have marked deaths through wearing white, stemming from Confucian practices of long ago.


http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Mourning" rel="no follow - http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Mourning


Pardon my coyness, I just wanted to make sure that you weren't overcompensating like many Afrocentrists tend to.


I'm not an Afrocentrist so I don't mind.


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:35am
I posted the HeLa article on Henrietta Lacks because it is her cells that continue to live today that are saving women's lives from the HPV virus even though she eventually died from it.


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:43am
Rosewood Case, one of the worst race riots in American history, in which hundreds of angry whites killed an undetermined number of blacks and burnt down their Florida community.
In 1922 Rosewood, Florida, was a small, predominantly black town. During the winter of 1922, two events in the vicinity of Rosewood aggravated local race relations: the murder of a white schoolteacher in nearby Perry, which led to the murder of three blacks, and a Ku Klux Klan rally in Gainesville on New Year's Eve.

On New Year's Day of 1923, Fannie Taylor, a young white woman living in Sumner, claimed that a black man sexually assaulted her in her home. A small group of whites began searching for a recently escaped black convict named Jesse Hunter, whom they believed to be responsible. They incarcerated one suspected accomplice, Aaron Carrier, and lynched another, Sam Carter. The men then targeted Aaron's cousin Sylvester Carrier, a fur trapper and private music instructor, who was rumored to be harboring Jesse Hunter.A group of 20 to 30 white men went to Sylvester Carrier's house to confront him. They shot his dog, and when his mother, Sarah, stepped outside to talk with the men, they shot her.
Sylvester killed two men and wounded four in the shoot-out that ensued. After the men left, the women and children, who prior to this had gathered in Carrier's house for protection, fled to the swamp where the majority of Rosewood's residents had already sought refuge.

The white men returned to Carrier's house the following evening. After a brief shoot-out, they entered the house, found the bodies of Sarah Carrier and a black man whom they believed to be Sylvester Carrier, and set the residence on fire.
The men then proceeded to rampage through Rosewood, torching other buildings and slaughtering animals. They were joined by a mob of about 200 whites who converged on Rosewood after finding out that a black man had killed two whites.That night two local white train conductors, John and William Bryce, who knew all of Rosewood's residents, picked up the black women and children and took them to Gainesville. John Wright, a white general store owner who hid a number of black women and children in his home during the riot, planned and helped carry out this evacuation effort. The African Americans who escaped by foot headed for Gainesville or for other cities in the northern United States.

By the end of the weekend all of Rosewood was leveled except for the Wright house and the general store. Although the state of Florida claimed that only eight people died in the Rosewood riot—two whites and six blacks—testimonies by survivors suggest that more African Americans perished. No one was charged with the Rosewood murders. After the riot, the town was deserted and even blacks living in surrounding communities moved out of the area.


Posted By: STricky
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:44am
Pullin' up a seat


Posted By: nycdiva357
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:45am
sigh the rosewood case..
 
I hated the movie since it didn't accurately portray what really happened.
 
and it ended all "good"... with a man and a women on a horse riding off ... ughhhhhhhhhhh
 
dont get me started.
 


Posted By: Eden.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:51am
black history is so sad. maybe that can explain some of the disdain of it.


Posted By: laceyfront
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:52am
Originally posted by nycdiva357 nycdiva357 wrote:

sigh the rosewood case..
 
I hated the movie since it didn't accurately portray what really happened.
 
and it ended all "good"... with a man and a women on a horse riding off ... ughhhhhhhhhhh
 
dont get me started.
 
LOLLOLLOLCryCryCryLOLLOLLOL


Posted By: Im_A_Diva
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:55am
Yeah Rosewood was a sad movie though, and to know from the beginning she LIED about the rape.


Posted By: Flowing-Ice
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 1:27am
The first thing the Europeans did was not find gold in the Americas. They raped the women first.

Americans changed put most dictators in place in the Caribbean, changed their textbooks and changed their schools from educational to technical. They taught them how to farm.

They stole treasure from Tortuga (the little Island off of Haiti).


Posted By: hma128
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 1:46am
Very interesting thread!


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 1:58am

The First Thanksgiving
(the one your teacher never told you about)


Thanksgiving. Turkey and dressing, pumpkin pie and football. Parents going to schools to see their children in plays about grateful pilgrims and their Indian benefactors. The age old tale of the Indians bringing food to feed the starving pilgrims.

I hate to be the one to burst the bubble but that story is a lie. One started to cover what really happened all those years ago.

The real story was reserached by William B. Newell, former chairman of the University of Connecticut Anthropology Department. His sources included Documents of Holland, 13 volume colonial documentary History, letters and reports from colonial officials to their superiors and the King of England, and the private papers of Sir William Johnson who was the British Indian agent for the New York colony for 30 years. Here is what Newell discovered about the "day of thanksgiving".

The year was 1637...700 men, women and children of the Pequot Tribe gathered for their annual "Green Corn Dance" in the area that is now known as Groton, Conn.

While they were gathered in this place of meeting, they were surrounded and attacked by mercenaries of the English and Dutch. The Indians were ordered from the building and as they came forth, they were shot down. The rest were burned alive in the building.

The next day, the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony declared "A day of thanksgiving" thanking god that they had eliminated over 700 men, women and children. For the next 100 years, every "thanksgiving day" ordained by a Governor or President was to honor that victory, thanking god that the battle had been won.

Not exactly the happy gathering that everyone has been led to believe that it was. Instead of giving thanks for being alive, they were giving thanks for killing 700 people.

Before anyone starts looking for rope to string me up with, let me say that I don't want thanksgiving outlawed. This holiday is now a time to spend with family and loved ones and that is important, but so is telling the truth.

When you are gathered at that table laden with food...with family and friends gathered around it....look at that turkey...the food...the drink....and get a mental picture of what really happened back then....then say your prayers.



Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 2:00am
When the Pilgrims came to Plymouth Rock, they were poor and hungry -- half of them died within a few months from disease and hunger. When Squanto, a Wampanoag man, found them, they were in a pitiful state. He spoke English, having traveled to Europe, and took pity on them. Their English crops had failed. The native people fed them through the winter and taught them how to grow their food. These were not merely "friendly Indians." They had already experienced European slave traders raiding their villages for a hundred years or so, and they were wary -- but it was their way to give freely to those who had nothing. Among many of our peoples, showing that you can give without holding back is the way to earn respect. Among the Dakota, my father's people, they say, when asked to give, "Are we not Dakota and alive?" It was believed that by giving there would be enough for all -- the exact opposite of the system we live in now, which is based on selling, not giving. To the Pilgrims, and most English and European peoples, the Wampanoags were heathens, and of the Devil. They saw Squanto not as an equal but as an instrument of their God to help his chosen people, themselves. Since that initial sharing, Native American food has spread around the world. Nearly 70 percent of all crops grown today were originally cultivated by Native American peoples. I sometimes wonder what they ate in Europe before they met us. Spaghetti without tomatoes? Meat and potatoes without potatoes? And at the "first Thanksgiving" the Wampanoags provided most of the food -- and signed a treaty granting Pilgrims the right to the land at Plymouth, the real reason for the first Thanksgiving. What did the Europeans give in return? Within 20 years European disease and treachery had decimated the Wampanoags. Most diseases then came from animals that Europeans had domesticated. Cowpox from cows led to smallpox, one of the great killers of our people, spread through gifts of blankets used by infected Europeans. Some estimate that diseases accounted for a death toll reaching 90 percent in some Native American communities. By 1623, Mather the elder, a Pilgrim leader, was giving thanks to his God for destroying the heathen savages to make way "for a better growth," meaning his people. In stories told by the Dakota people, an evil person always keeps his or her heart in a secret place separate from the body. The hero must find that secret place and destroy the heart in order to stop the evil. I see, in the "First Thanksgiving" story, a hidden Pilgrim heart. The story of that heart is the real tale than needs to be told. What did it hold? Bigotry, hatred, greed, self-righteousness? We have seen the evil that it caused in the 350 years since. Genocide, environmental devastation, poverty, world wars, racism. Where is the hero who will destroy that heart of evil? I believe it must be each of us. Indeed, when I give thanks this Thursday and I cook my native food, I will be thinking of this hidden heart and how my ancestors survived the evil it caused. Because if we can survive, with our ability to share and to give intact, then the evil and the good will that met that Thanksgiving day in the land of the Wampanoag will have come full circle. And the healing can begin.


Jacqueline Keeler is a member of the Dineh Nation and the Yankton Dakota Sioux. Her work has appeared in Winds of Change, an American Indian journal.


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 2:05am
Some insight into how the Chinese were treated as slaves but were called indentured laborers to help build the US railroad system:


Let’s establish some facts about Chinese participation in the building of the railway:

  • young Chinese men were often accosted at knife point or clubbed into unconsciousness before being forcibly loaded and tossed like sacks of potatoes onto rickety boats headed towards North America’s shore. The sea crossing took weeks and conditions on the boats were devastatingly atrocious. Many perished along the journey. For a glimpse of what conditions must have been like at sea at the time, revisit the films http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0118607/" rel="no follow - Amistad or http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0311113/" rel="no follow - Master and Commander , another excellent Russell Crowe piece.
  • they had their queues sliced off, their heads shaven, and were regularly beaten into submission once they traversed the ocean. They were taken into camps and hoarded together like cattle often in inhospitable desert conditions amongst hostile local Native populations and lethal wild game without any means of protecting themselves. In fact, conditions were often neglected as intentionally spartan so as to keep the workers close to camp and prevent them from even considering escape. Camps were built to cultivate a feeling of dependency and despondency on the part of the Chinese labor gangs.
  • Chinese men were forced to live in a state of forced bachelorhood for years on end. They were forbidden from marrying, travelling to the New World along with their wives or newlywed brides, and associating with the local female populations was strictly off-limits.
  • often, it was their Chinese handlers – men who had made the sea crossing several years previously to seek their fortunes during http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Gold_Rush" rel="no follow - California’s Gold Rush – who behaved more cruelly towards the Chinese than their white camp bosses. The Chinese workers grew to despise their own kind more than they hated their discriminatory white overlords.
  • there were murders in camp all the time. Jealousy pervaded the ranks and alcohol usually played a strong role in some of camp life’s more gruesome experiences. The Chinese rarely drank, were diligent and hard-working, and were in high demand by railway construction crews for that reason. Their fellow workers despised them for that which was the source of much intra-camp tension and strife.
  • the Chinese were not taught how to speak English. What developed was very much like the pidgin spoken on the Shanghai docks in the wake of the Opium Wars in China.
  • Chinese men who attempted to escape the relentless monotony of camp life and the unforgiving conditions of their harsh work details were tracked down with the assistance of bloodhounds and Native trackers, beaten within inches of their last breath, mock shot and cowered into terrorizing fear. As punishment for having absconded from camp, they were then forced to carry the deadly sticks of nitroglycerine which were used as the crude means of hacking through the unforgiving terrain of the Sierra Maestra mountain range as the gang plunged through the middle part of the continent. Having survived the thrashing from their white bosses along in cahoots their Chinese henchmen, many Chinese were to perish high above ground in the “basket of death” that would whisk aloft as they’d place the dynamite sticks to induce rock landslides as the teams hacked through impervious stone.
  • a typical stint would last up to four years, until such time that the men could fully pay off their ocean passage and room and board. They would be paid zero remuneration nothing until their four years were through. Rations were thin. Clothing was threadbare. The living conditions were survivalist.
  • camp life was radically segregated according to distinct racial hierarchies: the Irish were separated from the Natives, and in the top slot. Natives were separated from the Chinese. African-Americans were separated from everyone and existed as the lowest-ranking members of camp.



Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 2:14am
Patrice LaMumba - Congolese Leader

Patrice%20Lumumba.%20Reproduced%20by%20permission%20of%20AP/Wide%20World%20Photos.

was a Congolese independence leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. Only ten weeks later, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup during the Congo Crisis.[1]  He was subsequently imprisoned and murdered in circumstances suggesting the support and complicity of the governments of Belgium and the United States.




The CIA was hatching plots against Cuban leader Fidel Castro and was accused of fomenting coups and planning assassinations worldwide. And Lumumba clearly scared the daylights out of the Eisenhower administration. "In high quarters here, it is the clear-cut conclusion that if [Lumumba] continues to hold high office, the inevitable result will [have] disastrous consequences . . . for the interests of the free world generally," CIA Director Allen Dulles wrote. "Consequently, we conclude that his removal must be an urgent and prime objective."

Even out of office, Lumumba remained under the microscope of Western spy services. His ties to Moscow frightened Washington. His fierce anti-colonialism unnerved Brussels. Belgium finally got its chance at Lumumba after Congolese authorities arrested him in December 1960. Belgian officials engineered his transfer to the breakaway province of Katanga, which was under Belgian control. De Witte reveals a telegram from Belgium's African-affairs minister, Harold d'Aspremont Lynden, essentially ordering that Lumumba be sent to Katanga. Anyone who knew the place knew that was a death sentence.

Firing squad. When Lumumba arrived in Katanga, on January 17, accompanied by several Belgians, he was bleeding from a severe beating. Later that evening, Lumumba was killed by a firing squad commanded by a Belgian officer. A week earlier, he had written to his wife, "I prefer to die with my head unbowed, my faith unshakable, and with profound trust in the destiny of my country." Lumumba was 35.

The next step was to destroy the evidence. Four days later, Belgian Police Commissioner Gerard Soete and his brother cut up the body with a hacksaw and dissolved it in sulfuric acid. In an interview on Belgian television last year, Soete displayed a bullet and two teeth he claimed to have saved from Lumumba's body.

What remains unclear is the extent, if any, of Washington's involvement in the final plot. A Belgian official who helped engineer Lumumba's transfer to Katanga told de Witte that he kept CIA station chief Lawrence Devlin fully informed of the plan. "The Americans were informed of the transfer because they actively discussed this thing for weeks," says de Witte. But Devlin, now retired, denies any previous knowledge of the transfer.

Either way, Lumumba's death served its purpose: It bolstered the shaky regime of a formerly obscure colonel named Joseph Mobutu. During his three-decade rule, Mobutu would run his country, bursting with natural resources, into the depths of poverty. It took a civil war to oust him, and Congo has seen little peace since. Today, at least five countries are fighting in Congo and Lumumba's son, an opposition leader, spent several weeks in a Kinshasa jail cell on politically motivated charges.




Posted By: prettiimamii
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 2:20am
I Slept Alot in S.S. Class Thx 4 thee Info thoo:]


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 2:29am
The case of George Stinney.

I was in my late teens when I was horrified and made aware of this story in Time magazine, I believe. I think it spawned my militant phase to be honest.

Anyway, a 14 year old black boy was convicted as an adult for the murder of 2 white girls in the 1940's. The boy never denied the claim but he never got a fair trial and was the youngest ever to be executed. He weighed less than 90 lbs., could not even fit the shackles the was put in. Anyway, it's a very sad story and I always said if I ever came into alot of money, I'd put effort into getting his story told onscreen although I believe there was an attempt in the early 90's.

But here is some info on him:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d2/George_Stinney_1944.jpg" rel="no follow">File:George%20Stinney%201944.jpg


Stinney, who was black, was arrested for murdering two white girls, Betty June Binnicker, age 11, and Mary Emma Thames, age 8, in Alcolu, located in Clarendon County, South Carolina, on March 23, 1944.[2] The girls had disappeared while out riding their bicycle looking for flowers.[3]  As they passed the Stinney property, they asked young George Stinney and his sister, Katherine, if they knew where to find "maypops", a type of flower.[3]  When the girls did not return, search parties were organized, with hundreds of volunteers, and their bodies were found the next morning in a ditch filled with muddy water.[3] Both had suffered severe head wounds.[3]

Stinney was arrested a few hours later and was interrogated by several white officers in a locked room with no witnesses aside from the officers; within an hour, a deputy announced that Stinney had confessed to the crime.[3] According to the confession, Stinney (90 lbs, 5'1") wanted to "have sex with" 11 year old Betty June Binnicker and could not do so until her companion, Mary Emma Thames, age 8, was removed from the scene; thus he decided to kill Mary Emma.[3] When he went to kill Mary Emma, both girls "fought back" and he thus decided to kill Betty June, as well, with a 15 inch railroad spike that was found in the same ditch a distance from the bodies.[3] According to the accounts of deputies, Stinney apparently had been successful in killing both at once, causing major blunt trauma to their heads, shattering the skulls of each into at least 4-5 pieces.[3] The next day, Stinney was charged with first-degree murder.[3] Jones describes the town's mood as grief, transformed in the span of a few hours into seething anger, with the murders raising racially and politically charged tension. Townsmen threatened to storm the local jail to lynch Stinney, but prior to this, he had been removed to Charleston by law enforcement.[3] Stinney's father was fired from his job at the local lumber mill and the Stinney family left town during the night in fear for their lives.[3]

The trial took place on April 24 at the Clarendon County Courthouse. Jury selection began at 10 am, ending just after noon, and the trial commenced at 2:30 pm.[3] Stinney's court appointed lawyer was 30-year-old Charles Plowden, who had political aspirations.[3] Plowden did not cross-examine witnesses, his defense was reported to consist of the claim that Stinney was too young to be held responsible for the crimes.[3] However the law in South Carolina at the time regarded anyone over the age of 14 as an adult.[3] Closing arguments concluded at 4:30 pm, the jury retired just before 5 pm and deliberated for 10 minutes, returning a guilty verdict with no recommendation for mercy.[3] Stinney was sentenced to death in the electric chair.[2] When asked about appeals, Plowden replied that there would be no appeal, as the Stinney family had no money to pay for a continuation.[3] When asked about the trial, Lorraine Binnicker Bailey, the sister of Betty June Binnicker, one of the murdered children, stated:
“     Everybody knew that he done it, even before they had the trial they knew that he done it. But, I don't think that they had too much of a trial.     ”

—Lorraine Binnicker Bailey, sister of victim Betty June Binnicker, as quoted by Jones, Mark R., South Carolina Killers: Crimes of Passion, pg. 41.[3]

Local churches, the N.A.A.C.P., and unions pleaded with Governor Olin D. Johnston to stop the execution and commute the sentence to life imprisonment, citing Stinney's age as a mitigating factor.[3] There was substantial controversy about the pending execution, with one citizen writing to Johnston, stating, "Child execution is only for Hitler."[3] Still, there were supporters of Stinney's execution; another letter to Johnston stated: "Sure glad to hear of your decision regarding the Brotha Man Stinney."[3] Johnston did nothing, thereby allowing the execution to proceed.[3]
[edit] Execution

The execution of George Stinney was carried out at the South Carolina State Penitentiary in Columbia, South Carolina, on June 16, 1944. At 7:30 p.m., Stinney walked to the execution chamber with a Bible under his arm.[3] Standing 5'1" and weighing just over 90 pounds,[2] he was small for his age, which presented difficulties in securing him to the frame holding the electrodes. Neither did the state's adult-sized face-mask fit Stinney; his convulsing exposed his face to witnesses as the mask slipped free.[4] Stinney was declared dead within four minutes of the initial electrocution[3] From the time of the murders until Stinney's execution, eighty one days had passed.[3]





Posted By: miss.tiff.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 2:32am
some of these stories Cry just wow . 


Posted By: laceyfront
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 2:45am
This thread is really making me mad, I have to read it in bits and pieces. Got to see YT tommorow and I dont want to snap.


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 2:53am
Originally posted by laceyfront laceyfront wrote:

This thread is really making me mad, I have to read it in bits and pieces. Got to see YT tommorow and I dont want to snap.



It should make you mad.

Do you want to know why white people always ask why we are angry? You may be at work or school minding your own business. You don't even know where it comes from.

It's because they know we ought to be. It's their guilt.

So the less you know about your history, the easier it is for them to do exactly this over and over again. And they do.





Posted By: BlkQueen
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 2:58am
Originally posted by pattigurlatl pattigurlatl wrote:

Originally posted by laceyfront laceyfront wrote:

This thread is really making me mad, I have to read it in bits and pieces. Got to see YT tommorow and I dont want to snap.



It should make you mad.

Do you want to know why white people always ask why we are angry? You may be at work or school minding your own business. You don't even know where it comes from.

It's because they know we ought to be. It's their guilt.

So the less you know about your history, the easier it is for them to do exactly this over and over again. And they do.





Exactly. It baffles me how someone can 'not give a fcuk' about this. Thank you for posting these stories. They are empowering and saddening at the same time


Posted By: Im_A_Diva
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 2:59am
omg how could they accuse a 14 yo of killing two girls at once? Do they not care about the real killer they have to harass a 14yo Black boy?!


Posted By: miss.tiff.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:00am
^ he was black and two white girls were dead . thats all that matters to them .


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:04am
Did you know the "Mammy" image was propoganda created after the Civil War to counter the sexual assaults of black enslaved women?

http://kathmanduk2.wordpress.com/2007/05/16/towards-the-end-of-aunt-jemima/" rel="no follow - http://kathmanduk2.wordpress.com/2007/05/16/towards-the-end-of-aunt-jemima/


Posted By: BlkQueen
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:10am
Originally posted by ConcreteFlower ConcreteFlower wrote:

i wouldnt be surprised if the real white pedos and killers were doing this ish and blaming it on the nearest black man that happened to be around


This happens now as well.

http://thefreshxpress.com/2010/04/white-man-robs-bank-disguised-as-a-black-man/


Posted By: Nijjah25
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:11am
i love this thread Heart


Posted By: LilMissSunshine
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:11am
WOW! I had never heard of George Stinney before this thread. Its sad. Good thread.


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:15am

http://www.jackandjillpolitics.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/340x-2.jpg

http://www.midtownfilms.com/?page=lv_doc&tab=1" rel="no follow - The Silent Truth - The Documentary Coming 2010

Midtown Films is currently producing http://www.midtownfilms.com/?page=lv_doc&tab=1" rel="no follow - The Silent Truth , a documentary which tells the story of nineteen year-old U.S. Army Private LaVena Johnson, who was found dead on the military base in Balad, Iraq in July, 2005. The United States Army ruled her death as a suicide resulting from a self-inflicted M-16 rifle shot wound.

Through interviews with Ms. Johnson's parents, Dr. John and Linda Johnson, this documentary tells the story of a family's struggle to find the truth, and to secure justice for their daughter. Dr. Johnson has maintained that from the day his daughter's body was returned to him, he had grave suspicions about the circumstances surrounding her death.


Inside the tidy suburban St. Louis home of John and Linda Johnson, no photos of their eldest daughter grace the walls. Army Pfc. LaVena Johnson was just 19 when she died in Iraq in 2005; to this day her parents cannot bear to display reminders of her life.

John Johnson does possess other photos of his daughter — explicit color shots of her autopsy and death scene. He shows them to a visitor. They are horrifying: LaVena in a pool of blood. LaVena’s corpse on a coroner’s table. [...]

There was no suicide note, no recovered bullet and no significant gunshot residue on her hands. But the Army cited fellow soldiers’ reports that she was depressed and had spoken of killing herself.

Johnson maintains that his daughter was raped and killed, and that her death scene was staged to make it appear as if she shot herself. He accuses the Army of covering up for a killer or killers to conceal a soldier-on-soldier slaying, explaining that military personnel would have had unrestricted access to the area where his daughter died and therefore would not have attracted undue attention.

If LaVena’s death were investigated as a homicide, Johnson added, it would raise questions about base security and discourage women from enlisting.





Posted By: BlkQueen
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:17am
How sad..to me it if there wasnt any significant gun shot residue on her hands then it shouldnt have been reported as a suicide! Smh..


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:22am
Originally posted by LilMissSunshine LilMissSunshine wrote:

WOW! I had never heard of George Stinney before this thread. Its sad. Good thread.


What saddened me about this case, and I was either 19 or 20 at the time the magazine had a pic showing his little legs dangling from the chair and his pant soaked because he wet himself. I am trying to find the pic now.

But when I read accounts about how he was silent. I didn't read anything about him admitting or denying the claim, I was thinking, he could have been slow or retarded and no one thought to try to defend him. And I still don't believe a 90 lb. boy killed 2 girls by himself.



Posted By: miss.tiff.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:37am
patti you made this thread so interesting Heart


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:40am
Originally posted by miss.tiff. miss.tiff. wrote:

patti you made this thread so interesting Heart


Glad I could share.

Knowledge is power.


Posted By: LilMissSunshine
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:48am
Originally posted by pattigurlatl pattigurlatl wrote:


Originally posted by LilMissSunshine LilMissSunshine wrote:

WOW! I had never heard of George Stinney before this thread. Its sad. Good thread.
What saddened me about this case, and I was either 19 or 20 at the time the magazine had a pic showing his little legs dangling from the chair and his pant soaked because he wet himself. I am trying to find the pic now.But when I read accounts about how he was silent. I didn't read anything about him admitting or denying the claim, I was thinking, he could have been slow or retarded and no one thought to try to defend him. And I still don't believe a 90 lb. boy killed 2 girls by himself.
Me neither. It just seems impossible.


Posted By: miss.tiff.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:48am
Originally posted by pattigurlatl pattigurlatl wrote:

Originally posted by LilMissSunshine LilMissSunshine wrote:

WOW! I had never heard of George Stinney before this thread. Its sad. Good thread.


What saddened me about this case, and I was either 19 or 20 at the time the magazine had a pic showing his little legs dangling from the chair and his pant soaked because he wet himself. I am trying to find the pic now.

But when I read accounts about how he was silent. I didn't read anything about him admitting or denying the claim, I was thinking, he could have been slow or retarded and no one thought to try to defend him. And I still don't believe a 90 lb. boy killed 2 girls by himself.



i think it's easier to pin things on Black people . it's terrible that they treated him that way, his young mine wasn't even fully developed esp. back then, i doubt sex was on a childs mind .

it reminds me of the Natalie Halloway (sp?) case, the first people they arrested and interrogated were two black guys who worked at the club .


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:54am
http://www.williefrancis.com/inside/html/book.html" rel="no follow - http://www.williefrancis.com/inside/html/book.html

On May 3, 1946, in picturesque St. Martinville, Louisiana, a seventeen year-old black boy was scheduled for execution by electric chair inside of a tiny redbrick jail.  Charged with the murder of a local Cajun pharmacist, Willie Francis’s trial had been brief and a guilty verdict was never in doubt.  Willie’s appointed lawyers called no witnesses, presented no evidence and had not filed a single appeal once he was sentenced to die by electrocution. 

As the noontide church bells began to toll, a crowd of townspeople gathered in the streets surrounding the jailhouse. Inside, the executioners – still smelling of liquor after spending a late night in the local taverns -- strapped Willie into the electric chair. Three hundred pounds of oak and metal, the chair had been dubbed “Gruesome Gertie.” At 12:08 PM, the executioners flipped the switch. Willie screamed and writhed under his restraints.  The chair shuddered and slid across the floor. But Willie Francis did not die. 

Having miraculously survived, Willie was soon informed that the State would try to kill him again in six days.  Letters and telegrams began pouring into St. Martinville from across the country—spurred on by editorials and radio commentaries.  Americans of all colors and classes were transfixed by the fate of this young man. Had he been saved from death by the hand of the Almighty? Could Louisiana really electrocute someone twice?  Was the boy innocent—the victim of secrets and lies told by powerful whites in the cursed town of St. Martinville? Into the fray stepped a young Cajun lawyer just returned from WWII, Bertrand DeBlanc.  After a visit from Willie’s shaken but resolute father, DeBlanc resolved to take on Willie’s case—in the face of overwhelming local resistance.  Despite the fact that the murdered pharmacist was one of DeBlanc’s best friends, and the knowledge that his own family was rooted in white supremacy, DeBlanc would battle those on both sides of the color line in the hope of saving Willie Francis from an inhuman fate. He argued the case from the Bayou all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court where it caused a rift between the Justices. Felix Frankfurter, tortured by his vote to allow Willie to face the electric chair a second time, would make an unprecedented and covert last-ditch effort to overturn his own decision and save the life of Willie Francis.

An extraordinary and troubling story of a brutal crime, community vengeance, legal heroism, and constitutional law, The Execution of Willie Francis offers a historical examination of race and capital punishment – issues that remain all too timely today.




Posted By: miss.tiff.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:55am
you should post the story in this thread, i'm not familiar with Susan Smith .


Posted By: James Avery
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 3:56am
dope thread


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:02am
I saw a movie regarding this event:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottsboro_Boys" rel="no follow - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottsboro_Boys


Posted By: Shany
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:09am
i feel disturbed, angry, sad and a lot of feelings at once....Cry
this is harsh, we need to do something ppl.
Best Thread Ever Thumbs%20Up


Posted By: Shany
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:11am
oh my...


Posted By: miss.tiff.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:16am
didn't a white girl claim that a black man carved a "B" on her face during the Presidential Campaign and it turned out to be her damn self that did it ? smh .


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:19am
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lena_Baker.jpg" rel="no follow">

Lena Baker (June 8, 1901 – March 5, 1945) was an African American maid who was executed for murder by the State of Georgia in 1945 for killing her employer, Ernest Knight, 67, in 1944. At her trial she claimed that he had imprisoned and threatened to shoot her should she attempt to leave, whereupon she took his gun and shot him. Baker was the only woman to be executed by electrocution in Georgia. She was granted a full and unconditional pardon by the State of Georgia in 2005, 60 years after her execution.

In 1941, Ernest Knight hired Baker to care for him after he broke his leg. In the town of Cuthbert, Knight was viewed as a brutal and abusive man, a failed farmer who ran a gristmill and who always had a pistol strapped to his chest.  A relationship developed between the two. Knight was believed to provide Baker with alcohol in return for sex, and the whole town knew of the relationship. Knight was persuaded by his oldest son, A.C. Knight, to move to Tallahassee, Florida in an effort to break up the pair, but Baker soon followed. A.C. Knight then gave Baker an ultimatum to leave, which she did, but Knight followed her back to Cuthbert.

On the night of April 30, 1944, Lena Baker went to the house of J.A. Cox, who was now the town coroner, and told him that she had shot Knight. Cox told Baker to go to the sheriff, while he would go to the gristmill where Baker said Knight's body was. Baker did not go to the sheriff, but instead went home. She was picked up by the sheriff later that night, but was cooperative. He gave her two days to sleep off the effects of the alcohol in her system before questioning her.

Baker then told her version of events. Knight had come to her house drunk and asked her to come to the mill. She did not want to go and tried stalling him by asking for money to go buy some whiskey. He gave her some money and she went to the "colored bar" on Dawson Street to buy alcohol, but found it closed. She waited there for a while hoping that Knight would leave her house, but when she returned, he was still there. She was forced to accompany him to the mill, but escaped and hid in the underbrush. She bought some whiskey and went to sleep in the woods near the convict camp.On waking the next morning she decided to go to the mill, sure this was the last place that Knight would go; this was exactly where Knight was, however. He held her prisoner for several hours, even through several hours of his absence, when he attended a "singing" with his son. He returned and told Baker he would kill her if she tried to "quit" him. Baker was the only living witness to the details of what happened, but in the ensuing struggle, Knight's pistol went off, hitting him in the head and instantly killing him. Baker claimed she acted in self-defense.

Lena Baker was charged with capital murder and stood trial on August 14, 1944, presided over by Judge William "Two Gun" Worrill, who kept a pair of pistols on his judicial bench in plain view.The all-white male jury convicted her by the end of the afternoon.Her court-appointed counsel, W.L. Ferguson, filed an appeal but then dropped Baker as a client. Governor Ellis Arnall granted Lena a 60-day reprieve so that the Board of Pardons and Parole could review the case, but clemency was denied in January 1945. Baker was transferred to Reidsville State Prison on February 23, 1945.

On entering the execution chamber, Baker calmly sat in the electric chair, called Old Sparky, and said "What I done, I did in self-defense. I have nothing against anyone. I'm ready to meet my God." She was buried at Mount Vernon Baptist Church.

In 2001, members of Baker's family petitioned to have a pardon granted by the Georgia Board of Pardons and Paroles, seeing the original verdict as racist. This was granted in 2005, with the Parole Board, granting her a full and unconditional pardon, suggesting a verdict of manslaughter, which would have carried a 15 year sentence,would have been more appropriate.

A novel, The Lena Baker Story, authored by Lela Bond Phillips, chronicled her life. This book was the basis for a screenplay by actor/director Ralph Wilcox filmed in 2007 in Southwest Georgia. The film, also entitled The Lena Baker Story stars Tichina Arnold in the title role, Peter Coyote, Beverly Todd and Michael Rooker and is due for DVD release in Spring 2009.




Posted By: BlkQueen
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:20am


A McCain campaign volunteer made up a story of being robbed, pinned to the ground and having the letter "B" scratched on her face in what she had said was a politically inspired attack, police said Friday.

Ashley Todd, 20-year-old college student from College Station, Texas, admitted Friday that the story was false, said Maurita Bryant, the assistant chief of the police department's investigations division. Todd was charged with making a false report to police, and Bryant said police doubted her story from the start.

Dressed in an orange hooded sweat shirt, Todd left police headquarters in handcuffs late Friday and did not respond to questions from reporters. The mark on her face was faded and her left eye was slightly blackened when she arrived in district court.

Todd was awaiting arraignment Friday on the misdemeanor false-report charge, which is punishable by up to two years in prison. She will be housed in a mental health unit at the county jail for her safety and because of "her not insignificant mental health issues," prosecutor Mark Tranquilli said.

Todd initially told investigators she was attempting to use a bank branch ATM on Wednesday night when a 6-foot-4 black man approached her from behind, put a knife blade to her throat and demanded money. She told police she handed the assailant $60 and walked away.

Story continues below


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:27am
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlanta_Race_Riot" rel="no follow - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlanta_Race_Riot

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Le_Petit_Journal_7_Oct_1906.jpg" rel="no follow">File:Le%20Petit%20Journal%207%20Oct%201906.jpg

The Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 was a mass civil disturbance in Atlanta, Georgia, USA  which began the evening of September 22 and lasted until September 26, 1906. An estimated 25 to 40 African-Americans were killed along with 2 confirmed European Americans. The main cause was the rising tension between whites and blacks as a result of competition for jobs, black desire for civil rights, Reconstruction, and the gubernatorial election of 1906.

Atlanta was considered to be a prime example of how whites and blacks could live together in harmony; however, with the end of the Civil War an increased tension between black wage-workers and the white elite began. These tensions were further exacerbated by increasing rights for blacks, which included the right to vote. With these increased rights, African-Americans began to enter in the realm of politics, began establishing businesses, and gaining notoriety as a social class. These newly acquired African-American rights brought increased competition between blacks and whites for jobs and heightened class distinctions.

These tensions came to a boil with the gubernatorial election of 1906 in which Hoke Smith and Clark Howell competed for the Democratic nomination. Both candidates were looking to find ways to disenfranchise black voters because they felt that the black vote could throw the election to the other candidate. Hoke Smith was a former publisher of the Atlanta Journal and Clark Howell was the editor of the Atlanta Constitution. Both candidates used their influence to incite white voters and help spread the fear that whites may not be able to maintain the current social order. These papers and others attacked saloons and bars that were run and frequented by black citizens. These "dives", as whites called them, were said to have nude pictures of women, some of whom were white. Competing for circulation, the Atlanta Georgian and the Atlanta News began publishing stories about white women being molested and raped by black men. These allegations were reported multiple times and were largely false accusations.

On September 22, 1906, Atlanta newspapers reported four alleged assaults on local white women. Soon, some 10,000 white men and boys began gathering on Decatur Street in the Five Points area downtown. The newspapers with their incendiary headlines were circulated, and the mob soon turned violent, running down, beating, stabbing.

It is estimated that there were between twenty-five to forty African American deaths. It was confirmed that there were only two European American  deaths. Significant African American social changes were also an outcome of the riot. This included a disturbance of black housing and social patterns. In the years after the riot, African Americans were most likely to live in settled black communities. These communities were most likely found to the west of the city near Atlanta University  or in eastern downtown. Black businesses were dispersed to the east, where a thriving black business district soon developed. Other outcomes included an increase in black suffrage in 1908.




Posted By: BlkQueen
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:28am
On January 8, 1949, a group of seven young men sexually assaulted a 32-year-old woman in the city of Martinsville, Virginia. When the details of the offense were reported in the local newspaper, residents of the town were shocked that such a thing could happen in their community. The crime angered a lot of people. The suspects had been drinking all that day and later testimony indicated that at least four of the men were intoxicated during the event. The victim, who was married to a local store manager, suffered severe physical and psychological injuries. She was hospitalized and kept in seclusion until court proceedings began during April of 1949. All seven attackers were black. The victim was white. Despite the inflammatory racial aspects of the case, the judicial atmosphere was calm and deliberate. Too deliberate, some said. "The defense attorneys stood idly by while the prosecution, the judge and the all-white jury, with unbelievable speed-up, railroaded the seven," said one newspaper account of the trials (Daily Worker, June 1, 1949).

The%20Martinsville%20Seven
The Martinsville Seven
The case received ample national attention, though it is not well remembered today. That's because the guilt of the defendants was never in question. They confessed upon arrest and several of the men admitted to the assault at their trials. Though civil rights groups tried to help, public support for the defendants was tempered by the fact that they were guilty beyond any reasonable doubt. After a series of six trials, which took place over a period of eleven days, the defendants were convicted of rape in the first degree. One trial required just six hours from jury selection to verdict. Pursuant to Virginia statutes, all seven men received a death sentence. There has never been a case like it in the history of American criminal justice.

The defendants became known as the Martinsville Seven.



Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:32am
^you taught me something new. I didn't know about this case.

The punishment was death for any crime committed or simply accused to have been committed by a black man.


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:35am
"One of you two is gonna hang for this. Since you're the n*gger, you're elected."

These words were spoken by a Texas police officer to Clarence Brandley, who was charged with the murder of a white high school girl. Brandley was later exonerated in 1990 after ten years on death row.


Posted By: miss.tiff.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:35am
Jena Six ?


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:37am
In preparing for the penalty phase of an African-American defendant's trial, a white judge in Florida said in open court: "Since the n*gger mom and dad are here anyway, why don't we go ahead and do the penalty phase today instead of having to subpoena them back at cost to the state."

Anthony Peek was sentenced to death and the sentence was upheld by the Florida Supreme Court in 1986 reviewing his claim of racial bias.


Posted By: miss.tiff.
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:38am
^ what was this from ? 


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 4:44am
Originally posted by miss.tiff. miss.tiff. wrote:

^ what was this from ? 


A random case in FL.

You can get stats on racial disparity when it comes to legal cases and the death penalty here:

http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/death-penalty-black-and-white-who-lives-who-dies-who-decides" rel="no follow - http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/death-penalty-black-and-white-who-lives-who-dies-who-decides


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 5:06am
Australian Aborigines  were almost exterminated by the English colonizers. Today, they represent only 1% of the Australian population, roughly estimated at around 200,000 people. When Captain Cook arrived in 1770, there were about 300,000 of them. The Aborigines inhabited Australia for at least 25,000 years (this was proven by Carbon 14 on paintings left on rocks). At that time, Australia was probably connected with Papua-New Guinea, and had many more rivers and forests in contrast to the desert that it is today.

By 1965, the population of "Pure Aboriginals"  was little more than 40,000 people. They were literally massacred by the colonizers and expelled from their land, especially from productive land. They were pushed to the North of the country, where temperatures reach 50 degree Celsius in very wet or extremely dry areas. The Aborigines are extremely spiritual people and by 1770 they were so primitive that they didn't know what metal was. Most instruments and artifacts were made from wood, rock or bones. The boomerang itself was primarily a toy used to entertain the villagers, only later being used as a hunting and war device.

By 1806, racism from colonizers  and soldiers reached a very high point. Not only were sacred Aboriginal places violated and desecrated, the Aboriginals themselves became hunted like kangaroos for pleasure and fun, like trophy prizes. The soldiers used to visit Aboriginal villages offering gifts, while the real purpose of the visit was to contaminate the village water supply with arsenic. Whole communities including children, elderly, women and men were removed by arsenic poisoning. Rum, initially imported from England, was freely offered to Villagers. The introduction of rum made many villagers drunk for a whole week until death arrived from alcoholic comas. The English soldiers took advantage of this stage of alcoholism to create wars between friendly villages, leaving them to kill each other. It was a massacre.


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 5:15am
The Stolen Generations (also Stolen children) is a term used to describe the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments. The removals occurred in the period between approximately 1869 and 1969, although in some places children were still being taken in the 1970s.

The extent of the removal of children, and the reasoning behind their removal, are contested. Documentary evidence, such as newspaper articles and reports to parliamentary committees, suggest a range of rationales. Motivations evident include child protection, beliefs that given their catastrophic population decline after white contact that black people would "die out", a fear of miscegenation by full blooded aboriginal people and a desire to attain white racial purity. Terms such as "stolen" were used in the context of taking children from their families – the Hon P. McGarry, a member of the Parliament of New South Wales, objected to the Aborigines Protection Amending Act 1915 which then enabled the Aborigines' Protection Board to remove Aboriginal children from their parents without having to establish that they were in any way neglected or mistreated; McGarry described the policy as "steal[ing] the child away from its parents". In 1924, in the Adelaide Sun an article stated "The word 'stole' may sound a bit far-fetched but by the time we have told the story of the heart-broken Aboriginal mother we are sure the word will not be considered out of place."

Indigenous Australians in most jurisdictions were "protected", effectively being wards of the State. The protection was done through each jurisdictions' Aboriginal Protection Board; in Victoria and Western Australia these boards were also responsible for applying what were known as Half-caste acts.



Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 5:25am
http://ledaro.blogspot.com/2010/04/south-africa-racism-well-and-alive.html" rel="no follow - http://ledaro.blogspot.com/2010/04/south-africa-racism-well-and-alive.html


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 9:26am
This doesn't have anything to do with the atrocities that whites inflict or have inflicted on peoples of color around the world. It's just a tidbit of information that I recently was made aware of although subconsciously I always wondered.
 
Anywho, it's about a style of architecture common among black communities that probably has its roots in Haiti.
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shotgun_house" rel="no follow - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shotgun_house
 
The shotgun house is a narrow rectangular domestic residence, usually no more than 12 feet (3.5 m) wide, with doors at each end. It was the most popular style of house in the Southern United States from the end of the American Civil War (1861–65), through to the 1920s. Alternate names include shotgun shack, shotgun hut, and shotgun cottage.
 
You can see some evidence of this style in GA even in MLK Jr's original home which is still in tact in Atlanta.
 
The picture below is a house in New Orleans, LA.
 
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/BayouStJohnHeartMarkTires.jpg" rel="no follow">File:BayouStJohnHeartMarkTires.jpg


Posted By: Bunnyahh
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 9:36am
Originally posted by nycdiva357 nycdiva357 wrote:

um.... if I hear one more person saying "they gave us black history month.in February....b/c its the shortest month of the yr"
I'm liable to kill.
 
learn the real reason BHM is in February..and shut up.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carter_G._Woodson" rel="no follow - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carter_G._Woodson

Black History Month

After leaving Howard University because of differences with its president, Dr. Woodson devoted the rest of his life to historical research. He worked to preserve the history of African Americans and accumulated a collection of thousands of artifacts and publications. He noted that African American contributions "were overlooked, ignored, and even suppressed by the writers of history textbooks and the teachers who use them." #cite_note-6" rel="no follow - [7] Race prejudice, he concluded, "is merely the logical result of tradition, the inevitable outcome of thorough instruction to the effect that the Negro has never contributed anything to the progress of mankind." #cite_note-7" rel="no follow - [8] In 1926, Woodson single-handedly pioneered the celebration of "Negro History Week", for the second week in February, to coincide with marking the birthdays of /wiki/Abraham_Lincoln" rel="no follow - Abraham Lincoln and /wiki/Frederick_Douglass" rel="no follow - Frederick Douglass . #cite_note-8" rel="no follow - [9] . The week was later extended to the full month of February and renamed /wiki/Black_History_Month" rel="no follow - Black History Month .



Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 9:57am
Massacre%20of%20the%20Whites%20by%20Blacks%20and%20Indians%20in%20Florida,%201836%20engraving 
Black Seminoles and the largest slave uprising in American history.
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Seminoles" rel="no follow - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Seminoles


Posted By: Carib_n_curly
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 9:57am
from the UK

Brixton Riots 1981 and 1985



April 1981

The battle between police and residents in Brixton in April 1981 was the most significant outbreak of civil disorder in 20th century London.

In 1981, Brixton's Afro-Caribbean community comprised roughly 25% of its population. It was an area of high unemployment, particularly for Black men, where rates were as high as 50%.

Brixton was also an area of high crime, and in April 1981 the Metropolitan Police initiated 'Operation Swamp'. Within six days, a massive police presence on the streets had led to almost 1,000 people - mostly young Black men - being stopped and searched.

Police were operating under the 'sus' law. In order to stop someone, police needed only 'sus', or suspicion, that they might be intending to commit a crime. The police were exempt from the Race Relations Act, and seemed to some to be operating the 'sus' laws on the basis of racial prejudice.

On 13 April 1981, Police tried to assist a young Black man who had been stabbed in the back. A rumour circulated that the police were trying to arrest the injured man, rather than take him to hospital. Tensions rose. The following day, the arrest of another man outside a minicab office sparked violence. Within hours, the streets had become a battle zone. People threw petrol bombs and set light to police cars. Police in riot gear arrived, as did firefighters.

javascript:window.print%28%29;" rel="no follow - Print this page http://www.20thcenturylondon.org.uk/server.php?show=conInformationRecord.311#" rel="no follow - Full text >>

Buildings were torched, including a school in Effra Road, the Windsor Castle pub, and the post office. Most of the violence was concentrated along Railton Road, the 'front line'. Looting began in the evening of the 14 April. By 10pm, the police had begun to regain control of the area, but fighting and looting continued.

By the time hostilities subsided, over 360 people had been injured, 28 premises burned and another 117 damaged and looted. Over 100 vehicles, including 56 police vehicles, were damaged during the disturbances. The police arrested 82 people.

Following the riots, a public enquiry was held, under Lord Scarman. His report, published in November 1981, was heavily critical of the Metropolitan Police. Scarman emphasised that policing in a civil society can succeed only with the consent of the community. His report prompted new thinking about policing; the creation of the Police Complaints Authority; and a new outlook on police recruitment and training. Despite these measures, violence broke out on Brixton's streets again a few years later.

September 1985

On 25 September 1985, police shot Mrs Cherry Groce in error while looking for a man in connection with a robbery. The incident fuelled a new wave of anger in the community, many of whom felt that the police had not learnt the lessons of 1981.

Rioters barricaded Brixton Road, setting fire to the cars. Shops in Brixton were firebombed and looted. One person was killed and 50 people injured. Over 200 people were arrested. Mrs Groce spent two years in hospital and was permanently disabled as a result of the shooting.

Both events, although painful in the short term, left more positive long-term legacies. Clive Banton, who was 18 in 1981, remembers, 'I can see the riots made us into stronger people, with a sense of self-respect. We didn't have the opportunities that my children have, and I think things would have stayed bad if we didn't finally decide to stand firm'.




Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 10:06am
Great addition carib.


Posted By: Carib_n_curly
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 10:13am

Multicultural Britain

Although the British government tried several times to get rid of groups of Black people, there was clearly a settled Black and Asian population here throughout the period 1500-1850. Although we do not know their numbers, there are some (rather contradictory) clues. In 1764, for example, the Gentleman's Magazine estimated that 20,000 Black people lived in London, a figure accepted by the anti-slavery campaigner Granville Sharp. In 1772, Lord Mansfield put the number in the country as a whole at 15,000.

A poignant record of Black people's lives and deaths in Britain is provided by surviving tombstones. A famous and frequently quoted one is that of 18-year-old Scipio Africanus, who died on 21 December 1720. He is buried in Henbury cemetery, near Bristol. Another is that of 'Sambo' of Sunderland Point, Lancaster, whose inscription reads 'Here lies Poor Sambo A faithful Negro' - an epitaph that typifies the patronising attitudes towards Black people at the time.





Posted By: Carib_n_curly
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 10:16am
here i am under the impression the were only a few hundred black people in the whole UK back then and there were 20 000 in london alone
smh



Posted By: Derri
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 10:43am
I wish I could tell the truth about the first airplane and who really made it
but aint nobody going to believe me




Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 10:46am
Give it a shot.
Because if you think I believe that a white woman stayed up all night making the first US flag and not some poor black slave, even though everyone says Betsy Ross did, then I am booboo the fool.


Posted By: rohan
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 10:48am
Cool thread! Clap

Hey Pattigurl.


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 10:51am
Sup, sup Rohan!
 
Please feel free to add.


Posted By: nycdiva357
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 10:56am
On March 24, 1931, two mill girls from Huntsville in Madison County, northern Alabama, dressed up in overalls and hoboed their way by freight train to Chattanooga, Tenn., about 97 miles away.  The older of the two, Victoria Price, who said she was born in Fayettesville, Tenn. and gave her age as 21, planned the trip, urging the younger one, Ruby Bates, 17 years old, to go with her.

    All that is in known so far of this trip is what Victoria Price later told concerning  it on the witness stand.  No check on the truth of her story was made at the trial.  According to this story, the two girls arrived in Chattanooga late Tuesday, March 24, and went to spend the night at the home of Mrs. Callie Brochie, who lived, according to Victoria, several blocks off Market Street on North Seventh.  Victoria said she did not know the number of the house, but found the place by asking a boy on the street where Mrs. Brochie lived.  He pointed it out to the two girls, she said, and all she could say was that it was the fourth house in the block.

    A thorough investigation of the neighborhood later by the attorney for the defense failed to discover either Mrs. Brochie or the house she was said to live in.

    The Return to Huntsville

    As the story of Victoria Price goes, the two girls spent the night with Mrs. Brochie, and set out the next morning with her to look for work in the mills.  Victoria was not clear in her trial testimony as to the number and location of these mills where she said they tried to get work.  Finding no jobs open, they decided to return home to Huntsville.  This was around ten o'clock on the morning of March 25.  Boarding an oil tanker at first, they later climbed over into a gondola, or open topped freight car used for carrying gravel.  The car was partly filled with gravel.  Here they met seven white boys and began talking to them  Ruby declared in a private interview later that she did not speak to them but stayed in one end of the car by herself, while Victoria was talking, laughing and singing with the white boys in the other end of the car.  Victoria, however, said that both she and Ruby had talked to the boys.

    As the freight neared Stevenson, less than half the way to Huntsville, Victoria testified that the 12 Negroes climbed into the gondola in which the two girls were riding with the seven white youths, walking over the top of a box car in front and jumping into the gondola.  Ruby said in a personal interview later that she did not know how many colored boys were in the crowd.  She said she was too frightened to count them.  The Negroes gave the number of their gang as 15.  Victoria maintained emphatically that there were 12.

    The Alleged Rape

    According to Victoria's testimony, a Negro identified at the trial as Charlie Weems came first waving a pistol, followed by the others in the crowd.  A mile or two past Stevenson, Victoria said that the Negroes began fighting with the white boys, shouting "unload, you white sons-of-bitches" and forcing the white boys to jump from the freight which was moving at a fast rate of speed.  One of the white boys, Orvil Gilley, who said he was afraid to jump for fear he would be killed, was allowed by the Negroes to remain.  One of the Negroes testified that he pulled Gilley back upon the car as he was hanging over the edge for fear he might fall between the cars and be killed.  The local papers reporting the trial, however, claimed that he was forced to remain out of viciousness to witness the alleged assault.

    Victoria's story continued that while the freight was moving rapidly between Stevenson and Paint Rock, a distance of approximately 38 miles, the Negroes having driven the seven white boys from the train, attacked the two girls.  Victoria Price testified that six raped her and six, Ruby Bates.  Three of the ones who attacked Ruby got off before the train stopped at Paint Rock, Victoria said.  She alleged that Charlie Weems was the leader and carried a pistol, but that Clarence Norris was the first one to attack her.  He was followed by four others who took turns holding, she claimed, and then the leader, Weems, as the last one, was in the process of raping her when the train stopped at Paint Rock and the Negroes were captured by the posse who had been notified by telegraph from Stevenson that the Negroes were on the train.

    The white gang, after having been put off the train, had informed the station master at Stevenson that the Negroes and the two white girls were on the freight.  The station agent telegraphed ahead to Scottsboro, a station about 18 miles west of Stevenson, to have the train stopped, but the freight had already passed there, so Paint Rock, some 20 miles farther, was notified by telegraph.

    Here nine of the Negroes were seized by an armed posse of  officers and men.  The other Negroes had left the train before it arrived at Paint Rock and nothing more has been heard from them.  A report appeared in the press some days after the trial that two Negroes were captured and an attempt made to identify them as members of the crowd of nine Negroes in the Scottsboro case.  Nothing more was said about it, so the attempt apparently fell through.

    Plausibility of the Charges Questioned

    The International Labor Defense, which had representatives on the scene at the time of the trial in Scottsboro, and whose attorney, George Chamlee, of Chattanooga, later made investigations of various phases of the case not brought out at the trial, claims that when the two girls were taken from the train at Paint Rock, they made no charges against the Negroes, until after they were taken into custody; that their charges were made after they had found out the spirit of the armed men that came to meet the train and catch the Negroes, and that they were swept into making their wholesale accusation against the Negroes merely by assenting to the charges as presented by the men who seized the nine Negroes.

    There is no way of proving this conclusively, but from the interview I had with the two girls separately several weeks after the trial, I would say that there is a strong possibility of truth in this statement.  The talk with Victoria Price, particularly, convinced me that she was the type who welcomes attention and publicity at any price.  The price in this case meant little to her, as she has no notions of shame connected with sexual intercourse in any form and was quite unbothered in alleging that she went through such an experience as the charges against the nine Negro lads imply.  Having been in direct contact from the cradle with the institution of prostitution as a side-line necessary to make the meager wages of a mill worker pay the rent and buy the groceries, she has no feeling of revulsion against promiscuous sexual intercourse such as women of easier lives might suffer.  It is very much a matter of the ordinary routine of life to her, known in both Huntsville and Chattanooga as a prostitute herself.

    The younger girl, Ruby Bates, found herself from the beginning pushed into the background by the more bubbling, pert personality of Victoria.  She was given little chance to do anything but follow the lead of Victoria, so much quicker and garrulous.  When I talked with her alone she showed resentment against the position into which Victoria had forced her, but did not seem to know what to do except to keep silent and let Victoria do the talking.  The general opinion of the authorities at the trial was that Ruby was slow and stupid, but that Victoria was a shrewd young woman whose testimony amounted to something because she got the point at once of what was needed to hurry the trial through so that sentence of death could be pronounced quickly.  From my many talks with Judge Hawkins, who presided at the trial; with Dr. Bridges who examined the girls, and with other officials, I believe any unbiased person would have come to the conclusion that this was the basis of their judgment of the two girls as witnesses.

    The Trial

    About 5:45 in the morning on April 6, a picked detachment of the 167th infantry under Major Joe Stearnes, made up of 118 members of five national guard companies of Gadsden, Albertville and Guntersville, Alabama, brought the nine negroes from Gadsden and locked them in the county jail at Scottsboro until the hour of their trial.  People from surrounding counties and states began arriving by car and train with the coming of dawn.  Thousands had gathered by the time the trial opened at 8:30 o'clock.  By ten o'clock it was estimated that a crowd of 8,000 to 10,000 swarmed in the narrow village streets of the little county seat of Scottsboro, packing the outside rim of the Square around the Courthouse with a solid mass of humanity.  Armed soldiers formed a picket line to keep the mass of people out of the Square, and no one was admitted into the Courthouse without a special permit.

    A Lynching Spirit

    Officials and residents of Scottsboro maintained that the crowd was peaceful and showed no evidence of lynching spirit.  Mrs. Ben Davis, local reporter for the Chattanooga Times, wrote that the crowd was "curious not furious" and was so pleased with her phrase that she continued to repeat it innumerable times when interviewed.  Judge Hawkins, Dr. Bridges, Hamlin Caldwell, the court stenographer; Sheriff Wann and many others were emphatic in their statements that the crowd had poured into Scottsboro in the spirit of going to a circus and wanted to see the show, but were without malicious intent toward the defendants.

    Chance conversation with residents of the town, however, did not tend to substantiate this view of the officials.  A kind-faced, elderly woman selling tickets at the railroad station, for instance, said to me that if they re-tried the Negroes in Scottsboro, she hoped they would leave the soldiers home next time.  When I asked why, she replied that the next time they would finish off the "black fiends" and save the bother of a second trial.  Then she told me a lurid story of the mistreatment suffered by the two white girls at the hands of those "horrible black brutes" one of whom had had her breast chewed of by one of the Negroes.

    When I called to her attention that the doctor's testimony for the prosecution was to the effect that neither of the girls showed signs of any rough handling on their bodies, it made not impression upon her.  Her faith in her atrocity story which had been told to her "by one who ought to know what he was talking about," remained unshaken.

    If, as the town authorities claimed, there was no lynching spirit, Major Stearnes, in charge of the soldiers called to Scottsboro, certainly did not go on this supposition.  The town looked like an armed camp in war time.  Armed soldiers were on guard both inside and outside the courthouse, and before Court opened, the Major gave orders to have persons in attendance at the trial searched.

Negroes Tried in Four Separate Cases

    The defense did not ask for severance but was willing to have all nine negroes tried together.  The State, however, demanded that they be tried in four separate cases.  For the first case, two of the oldest of the boys were chosen by the prosecution.  Clarence Norris, of Molina, Georgia, 19 years old, and Charlie Weems, of 154 Piedmont Avenue, Atlanta, Ga., 20 years old, were the defendants selected for the initial trial.

    The chief witness for the State was the older of the two girls, Victoria Price, who told the story of the trip to Chattanooga and back from Huntsville, as given previously.  She did it with such gusto, snap and wise-cracks, that the courtroom was often in a roar of laughter.  Her flip retorts to the attorney for the defense, Steven Roddy, especially caused amusement.  The sentiment of the courtroom was with her, she knew it and played up to it, as can be seen by the record of the trial testimony.

    The other girl, Ruby Bates, was found by the prosecution to be a "weak witness," as I was told several times by officials present at the trial.  The white youth, Orvil Gilley, who remained on the train with the girls, also was considered stupid and slow-witted.  The Gilley boy came from Albertville, a small village a short distance from Scottsboro.  Judge Hawkins remarked to me about him, saying, "Well, we all know what his family is. Her mother, for instance . . ." and he broke off as if it were too obvious for words what his mother was like.  I asked if he meant that the family was feeble minded or of low mentality.  "No, not that," her replied, "but . . . well we know here they are not much good."  He would commit himself no farther.

    From all I could gather later, it seems that the opinion of spectators and officials at the trial that both Ruby Bates and Orvil Gilley were no good because they could not make their testimony fit in with the positive identification of the Negroes and the account of events as given by Victoria on the stand.  Victoria told me later that she warned the prosecutor that he had better take Ruby off the stand as she was getting mixed up and would make identifications and answers that did not coincide with those she, herself, had made.  The minutes of the trial show certainly that she was the only alleged eye witness of the group on the freight train that testified at great length.  Questioning of Ruby Bates and Orvil Gilley was very brief, and the other six white boys were not put on the stand at all.

    Dr. M. H. Lynch, County Health Physician, and Dr. H. H. Bridges, of Scottsboro, testified at the trial that the medical examination of the girls made shortly after they were taken from the train, showed that both the girls had had recent sexual intercourse, but that there were no lacerations, tears, or other signs of rough handling; that they were not hysterical when brought to the doctor's office first, but became so later.  Dr. Bridges said that Victoria had a small scratch on her neck and a small bruise or two, but nothing more serious was found.  The lawyer for the defense, Mr. Roddy, inquired hesitantly and indirectly, in his cross-examination of the doctor, if it were possible to tell the difference between the spermatozoa of a white man and that of a colored male.  The doctor answered that it was not possible to distinguish any difference.

    Other witnesses put on the stand by the State included Luther Morris, a farmer living west of Stevenson, who testified that he had seen the girls and the Negroes on the freight train as it passed his hay loft, which he said was 30 miles away, and that he "had seen a plenty;"  Lee Adams, of Stevenson, who said he saw the fight between the white and colored boys on the train, and Charles Latham, deputy who captured the Negroes at Paint Rock.

    Mr. Steven Roddy, attorney for the defense from Chattanooga, was undoubtedly intimidated by the position in which he found himself.  At the beginning of the trial he had asked not to be recorded as the lawyer in the case, begging the judge to leave Milo Moody, Scottsboro attorney appointed by the Judge as lawyer for the defense, on record as counsel for the Negroes with himself appearing purely in advisory capacity as representing the parents and friends of the boys in Chattanooga.  He made little more than half-hearted attempts to use the formalities of the law to which he was entitled, after his motion for a change of venue made at the beginning of the trial was overruled.  It might be said for him, of course, that taking the situation as it was, he felt it was hopeless  for him to attempt to do anything much, except make motions for a new trial after the convictions, which he did.

    The first case went to the jury Tuesday afternoon at 3 o'clock, and a verdict calling for the death penalty was returned in less than two hours.  The Judge had previously warned the courtroom that no demonstration must be staged when the verdict was announced.  In spite of this the room resounded with loud applause, and the mass of people outside, when the news spread to them, cheered wildly.

    The next day, Wednesday, April 8, Haywood Patterson, of 910 West 19th Street, Chattanooga, 18 years old, was tried alone, as the second case.  In three hours the jury returned with the death penalty verdict.  It was met with silence in the courtroom

    In the third case, five of the remaining six boys were tried:  Olin Montgomery, of Monroe, Georgia, 17 years old, and nearly blind; Andy Wright, of 710 West 22nd Street, Chattanooga, 18 years old;  Eugene Williams, No. 3 Clark Apts., Chattanooga, Willie Robeson, 992 Michigan Ave., Atlanta, Ga., 17 years old; Ozie Powell, 107 Gilmore St., Atlanta, Ga., 16 years old.

    It was brought out in this trial that Willie Robeson was suffering from a bad case of venereal disease, which would have made it painful, if not impossible for him to have committed the act of which he was accused.  The case went to the jury at 4 p.m. on Wednesday, April 8, and early Thursday morning, the jury again turned in the verdict calling for the death penalty.

    Judge Hawkins proceeded at once after the convictions returned against the five Negroes in the third case, to pronounce the death sentence on the eight who had been tried.  He set the day of execution for July 10, the earliest date he was permitted to name under the law, which requires that 90 days be allowed for filing an appeal of a case.

    In three days' time, eight Negro boys all under 21, four of them under 18 and two of them sixteen or under, were hurried through trials which conformed only in outward appearance to the letter of the law.  Given no chance even to communicate with their parents and without even as much as the sight of one friendly face, these eight boys, little more than children, surrounded entirely by white hatred and blind venomous prejudice, were sentenced to be killed in the electric chair at the earliest possible moment permitted by law.  It is no exaggeration certainly to call this a legal lynching.

    The most shameful of the cases was left to the last.  This was the trial of fourteen-year-old Roy Wright, of Chattanooga, a young brother of another of the defendants.  Perhaps because of his youthfulness, the white authorities who had him at their mercy, seemed to be even more vicious in their attitude toward him than toward the older defendants.  The may unconsciously have been trying to cover up a sense of uneasiness at what they were doing to a child.  Several of the authorities at the trial assured me that he was really the worst of the lot and deserved no lenience on account of his youth.  But for the sake of outside public opinion, the State decided to ask for life imprisonment instead of the death penalty, in view of the youth of the defendant.

    At two o'clock on the afternoon of Thursday, April 9, the jury announced that they were dead-locked and could not agree on a verdict.  Eleven of them stood for the death penalty and one for life imprisonment.  Judge Hawkins declared a mistrial, and the child was ordered back to jail to await another ordeal at a later date.  He is now in the Birmingham jail.  The other eight defendants were kept a short time also in Birmingham, and then removed to Kilby prison, about four miles from Montgomery.  I visited them there in their cells in the death row on May 12, locked up two together in a cell, frightened children caught in a terrible trap without understanding what it is all about.

Why the Two Girls made the Charge?

    The first of these questions can be answered only by some knowledge of the conditions of   life in the mill town of Huntsville, as it affected the lives and development of the two young mill workers, Victoria Price and Ruby Bates.

    Huntsville, the town seat of Madison County in northern Alabama, has within its city limits, some 12,000 inhabitants.  Taking in the four mill villages which surround it, the population is about 32,000.  There are seven cotton mills in and around Huntsville, the largest being the Lincoln mill made up of four units. . . . Then there are two old fashioned plants under the same management and owned by local capitalists -- the Helen knitting mill and the Margaret spinning mill.  It is in this last place, the Margaret Mill, that both Victoria and Ruby Bates worked before the trial and afterward.

    Wages were always low and hours long in all the Huntsville Mills, but in the Margaret and Helen especially, working conditions are very bad.  The workers had to bear the brunt of the competition with the modern mills, backed by outside capital and with outside connections to help them out, while the Margaret and Helen management was muddling along in the old way.  Respectable citizens of Huntsville said that only the lowest type of mill worker would take a job in the Margaret and Helen Mills.

    All the mills were running on short time during the period of the Scottsboro case, and had been for some months before.  Most of them had cut down to two, three, and four days a week.  The Margaret had its workers on shifts employed only every other week, from two to four days a week.

    Mill workers found it a dreary, hopeless enough struggle making some sort of a living when times were good, so when the slump hit them, it did not take long for a large group to fall quickly below the self-sustaining line.  Low standards of living were forced down still lower, and many were thrown upon the charity organizations.  It is from the charity workers of Huntsville that one may get an appallingly truthful picture of what mill life in Huntsville in time of depression means to workers who are doggedly trying to live on the already meager and uncertain wages of "prosperity."

    High standards of morality, of health, of sanitation, do not thrive under such conditions.  It is a rare mill family that is not touched in some form by prostitution, disease, prison, insane asylum, and drunkenness.  "That's the kind of thing these mill workers are mixed up with all the time", complained one social service worker.  "I'm beginning to forget how decent people behave, I've been messing around with venereal disease and starvation and unemployment so long."

    Under the strain of life in Huntsville, the institution of the family does not stand up very well.  Charity workers grumble that too many men are deserting their families.  "If they get laid off, and can't get another job they seem to think the best thing for them to do is to leave town, because then the charities will have to take care of their families," said one.

    There was no father in evidence in either the families of Victoria Price or Ruby Bates.

    Husbands come and go in many cases, with marriage ceremonies or without.  A woman who takes in a male boarder to help out expenses is unquestionable assumed to share her bed as well as her board with him.  The neighbors gossip about it, but with jealousy for her good luck in getting him, rather than from disapproval of her conduct.  The distinction between wife and "whore," as the alternative is commonly known in Huntsville, is not strictly drawn.  A mill woman is quite likely to be both if she gets the chance as living is too precarious and money too scarce  to miss any kind of chance to get it.  Promiscuity means little where economic oppression is great.

    "These mill workers are as bad as the Brotha Mans," said one social service worker with a mixture of contempt and understanding.  "They haven't any sense of morality at all.  Why, just lots of these women are nothing but prostitutes.  They just about have to be, I reckon, for nobody could live on the wages they make, and that's the only other way of making money open to them."

    It should perhaps be mentioned that there are undoubtedly very many mill families in Huntsville to whom these things just described do not apply, but is also true that there is a large group of workers to whom the conditions do apply, and Ruby Bates and Victoria, with whom this part of the report is concerned, come from this group.

Ruby Bates and Her Family

    As has been said, it is from the most economically oppressed of the mill workers of Huntsville that the two girls in the Scottsboro case come.  Ruby Bates. the younger of the two, has a better reputation among the social workers of Huntsville than Victoria.  They say that she was quiet and well-behaved until she got into bad company with Victoria Price.

    Ruby is only seventeen.  She is a large, fresh, good-looking girl, shy, but a fluent enough talker when encouraged.  She spits snuff juice on the floor continually while talking, holding one finger over half her mouth to keep the stream from missing aim.  After each spurt she carefully wipes her mouth with her arm and looks up again with soft, melancholy eyes, as resigned and moving as those of a handsome truck horse.

    Ruby lives in a bare but clean unpainted shack at 24 Depot Street, in a Negro section of town, with her mother, Mrs. Emma Bates.  They are the only white family in the block.  Of the five children in the family, two are married and three are living at home.  Mr. Bates is separated from his wife and lives in Tennessee, according to the report of neighbors, who say that he comes occasionally to see his children.

    The house in which the Bateses lived when I visited them on May 12, several weeks after the trial, had been vacated recently by a colored family.  The social service worker who accompanied me on the visit sniffed when she came in and said to Mrs. Bates:  "Brotha Mans lived here before you, I smell them.  You can't get rid of that Brotha Man smell."  Mrs. Bates looked apologetic and murmured that she had scrubbed the place down with soap and water.  The house looked clean and orderly to me.  I smelled nothing, but then I have only a northern nose.

    Out in front while we talked, the younger Bates children were playing with the neighboring Negro youngsters.  Here was another one of those ironic touches which life, oblivious of man's ways, gives so often.  If the nine youths on the freight car had been white, there would have been no Scottsboro case.  The issue at stake was that of the inviolable separation of black men from white women.  No chance to remind negroes in terrible fashion that white women are farther away from them than the stars must be allowed to slip past.  The challenge flung to the Negro race in the Scottsboro case was Ruby Bates, and another like her.  Ruby, a girl whom life had forced down to equality with Negroes in violation of all the upholders of white supremacy were shouting.  As a symbol of the Untouchable White Woman, the Whites held high - Ruby.  The Ruby who lived among the Negroes, whose family mixed with them; a daughter of what respectable Whites call "the lowest of the low,"  that is a White whom economic scarcity has forced across the great color barrier.  All the things made the respectable people of Scottsboro insist that the Negro boys must die, had meant nothing in the life of Ruby Bates.

    Yet here was Ruby saying earnestly, as she sat in a Negro house, surrounded by Negro families, while the younger members of her family played in the street with Negro children, that the Scottsboro authorities had promised her she could see the execution of the "Brotha Mans" - the nine black lads who were to be killed merely for being Negroes.

    Ruby's mother, Mrs. Emma Bates, clean and neat in a cheap cotton dress, talked with a mixture of embarrassment and off-handed disregard for her visitors' attitude toward her.  She has worked in the mills for many years.  She was employed by the Lincoln textile mill, the largest one in Huntsville, some time before the trial.  When I saw her she was out of a job, but the neighbors reported that she had a "boarder" living with her, a man named Maynard.  They also gossiped that she frequently got drunk, and took men for money whenever she got the chance.

    Neither mother nor daughter showed signs of regarding the experience Ruby is alleged to have been through as anything to be deplored especially.  They both discussed the case quite matter-of-factly, with no notion apparently, that it had marred or blighted Ruby's life at all.  The publicity which the case has brought to them, however, has impressed them greatly.  They humbly accept the opinion of respectable white people; it never occurs to them, of course to analyze the inconsistencies it makes with their own way of life.  Accustomed to seeing Negroes all around them on equal status with themselves for all practical purposes, and looking upon sexual intercourse as part of the common and inescapable routine of life, they have no basis in their own lives for any intense feeling on the subject of intimate relations between whites and blacks.  They have just fallen in with "respectable" opinion because that seems to be what is expected of them, and they want to do the proper thing.  There are so few times when they can.

    The only strong feeling that Ruby showed about the case was not directed against the Negroes.  It was against Victoria Price that Ruby expressed deep and bitter resentment.  For Victoria captured the show for herself and pushed Ruby into the background, causing people at the trial to say that Victoria was a quick clever girl, but Ruby was slow and stupid.  It was easier for Victoria to talk than to breathe.  Words came hard to Ruby.  Victoria identified the six Negroes she claimed attacked her with a cock-sure, emphatic manner that much impressed the jurors and the trial spectators.  She caught on at once to what was wanted of her -- identifications without any confusing hesitations to slow up the death sentences.  Ruby, on the other hand, was annoying from the start because she could not say which ones attacked her.  So Victoria with pert, condescending manner, passing looks with the prosecuting officials at such stupidity, told Ruby which ones she must say attacked her, in order not to get mixed up and identify some of those Victoria had previously said were "her six Brotha Mans," as she put it.

Both Ruby and Victoria told me this, in their own words, when I interviewed them personally.  Neither one had the slightest notion of the seriousness of what they were saying.  The only opinion they had run across so far was that which said the "Brotha Mans" must get the death sentence at once or be lynched.  Never having met any other attitude on the Negro question, they both assumed that this was my attitude, and therefore spoke to me as they thought all respectable white people speak.

Victoria Price and Her Mother

    Victoria Price was born in Fayetteville, Tennessee.  She has been married but says she is separated from her husband.  She left him because he "lay around on me drunk with canned heat," she said.  She was known at the trial as Mrs. Price, though this is her mother's name, not her husband's.  Her age was variously reported in Scottsboro as 19, 20, and 21.  Her mother gave it as 24, and neighbors and social workers said she was 27.

    Victoria lives in a little, unpainted shack at 313 Arms Street, Huntsville, with her old, decrepit mother, Mrs. Ella Price, for whom she insistently professes such flamboyant devotion, that one immediately distrusts her sincerity.  This impression is strengthened by little side looks her mother gives her.  Mrs. Price fell down the steps while washing clothes, and injured her arm, which is now stiff and of little use.  Victoria says her mother is entirely dependent upon her for support.

    Miss Price is a lively, talkative young woman, cocky in manner and not bad to look at.  She appears to be in very good health.  The attention which has come to her from the case has clearly delighted her.  She talks of it with zest, slipping an many vivid and earthy phrases.  Details spoken of in the local press as "unprintable" or "unspeakable" she gives off-hand in her usual chatty manner, quite unabashed by their significance.  Like Ruby, Victoria spits snuff with wonderful aim.

    Victoria and her mother, after some warm argument on the subject, agreed finally to the number of years that Victoria had worked in the mills as being ten.  Eight of these years were spent doing night work, they said, on a twelve-hour shift.  Victoria is a spinner, and used to run from 12 to 14 sides, she said with pride.  "Yeh, I used to make good money.  I've made as high as $2.25 a day workin' the night shift before hard times come."  Now nobody is allowed to have more than 8 sides to run, and the average is 6, Victoria says.  She gets 18 cents a side now, where she used to get 22 cents.  "I make on an average of $1.20 a day now, workin' two, sometimes three days a week.  Every other week we are laid off altogether.  You know nobody can't live on wages like that."

    Although Victoria with a sly eye on me to see if I had heard of her record and would scoff, assured me that in spite of her low wage she never made a cent outside the wall of the mill, her reputation as a prostitute is widely established in Huntsville, and according to the investigation of the International Labor Defense, also in Chattanooga.  One of the social workers reported that Walter Sanders, chief deputy sheriff in Huntsville, said that he didn't bother Victoria, although he knew her trade, because she was a "quiet prostitute, and didn't go rarin' around cuttin' up in public and walkin' the streets solicitin' but just took men quiet-like."

    Sheriff Giles, of Huntsville, said he had information that she was running a speak-easy on the side with a married man named Teller, who lived in the Lincoln mill village and had several small children, but was now running around with Mrs. Price and leaving his wife.  The sheriff said he had been trying to catch them with liquor on them, but had not succeeded so far.  He said that he had caught the Teller man in her house, however, and had given both of them a warning.

    Mrs. Russell, a neighbor of the Prices, claims that Victoria is a "bad one" and has been in no end of scrapes with married men.  She was reported to be the cause of the separation of a Mr. and Mrs. Luther Bentrum, and was rumoured to have received the attentions of a man named George Whitworth, until his wife threatened to kill her, and Victoria hurriedly moved out of the neighborhood.  One morning after the Scottsboro trial, Mrs. Russell said she saw her lying drunk out in the back yard with a man asleep on her lap.  Mrs. Russell is also authority for the statement that Victoria's mother was as notorious for her promiscuity in her day as Victoria is now.

    These stories are typical of the sort that circulate continually among the mill workers of the group from which both Ruby and Victoria come.  Whether true or exaggerated, they give some idea of the social background of both the plaintiffs in the Scottsboro case.  Leaving out of consideration the matter of the conflicting and untested evidence upon which the Negro boys were convicted, and assuming what has by no means been proved, that the Negroes are guilty of the worst that has been charged against them, the question of whether a monstrous penalty has not been exacted for an offense which the girls themselves feel to be slight, can certainly be raised.

Why the Boys Were Hated

    Scottsboro, the county seat of Jackson county in northern Alabama, is a charming southern village with some 2,000 inhabitants situated in the midst of pleasant rolling hills.  Neat, well-tended farms lie all around, the deep red of their soil making a striking contrast with the rich green of the hills.  The cottages of the town stand back on soft lawns, shaded with handsome trees.  A feeling of peace and leisure is in the air.  The people on the streets have easy kind faces and greet strangers as well as each other cordially.  In the Courthouse Square in the center of town, the village celebrities, such as the mayor, the sheriff, the lawyers, lounge and chat democratically with the town eccentrics and plain citizens.

    Strolling around observing these things, it is hard to conceive that anything but kindly feelings and gentle manners toward all mankind can stir the hearts of the citizens of Scottsboro.  It came as a shock, therefore, to see these pleasant faces stiffen, these laughing mouths grow narrow and sinister, those soft eyes become cold and heard because the question was mentioned of a fair trial for nine young Negroes terrified and quite alone.  Suddenly these kindly-looking mouths were saying the most frightful things.  To see people who ordinarily would be gentle and compassionate at the thought ot a child - a white one - in the least trouble, who would wince at the sight of a suffering dog - to see these men and women transformed by blind, unreasoning antipathy so that their lips parted and their eyes glowed with lust for the blood of black children, was a sight to make one untouched by the spell of violent prejudice shrink.

    The trial judge, A.E. Hawkins, a dignified, fine-looking, gray-haired Southern gentleman, who was absolutely convinced in his own mind that he had done everything to give the Negroes a fair trial, gave himself away so obviously at every other sentence he uttered, that any person with mind unclouded by the prejudice which infected him could have pointed it out.  The other officials and citizens with whom I discussed the case also made it disconcertingly clear that they regarded the trial of the Negroes and the testimony given at it, not as an honest attempt to get at the truth, but as a game where shrewd tricks were to be used to bring about a result already decided upon in the minds of every one of them.  They all wanted the Negroes killed as quickly as possible in a way that would not bring disrepute upon the town.  They therefore preferred a sentence of death by a judge, to a sentence of death by a mob, but they desired the same result, and were impatient with anything that slowed up the conviction and death sentence which they all knew was coming regardless of any testimony.

    They said that all negroes were brutes and had to be held down by stern repressive measures or the number of rapes on white women would be larger than it is.  Their point seemed to be that it was only by ruthless oppression of the Negro that any white woman was able to escape raping at Negro hands.  Starting with this notion, it followed that they could not conceive that two white girls found riding with  a crowd of Negroes could possibly have escaped raping.  A Negro will always, in their opinion, rape a white woman if he gets the chance.  These nine Negroes were riding alone with two white girls on a freight car.  Therefore, there was no question that they raped them, or wanted to rape them, or were present while the other Negroes raped them - all of which amounts to very much the same thing in southern eyes - and calls for the immediate death of the Negroes regardless of these shades of difference.  As one southerner in Scottsboro put it, "We white people just couldn't afford to let these Brotha Mans get off because of the effect it would have on other Brotha Mans."

    In answering the question then, of why ordinarily kind, mild people are aroused to such heartless cruelty against boys who have done them no harm, and if their case were fairly investigated quite likely would be found to have harmed nobody else either, one it brought up against the ugly fact that these pleasant people of the South, the Civil War notwithstanding, are still living on the enslavement of the Negro race.  And this brings one to a second ugly fact, that when this is so, the subjugating race cannot afford to have any regard for decency, honesty, kindness, or fairness in their treatment of the black race.  These traits are exclusively for relationships with their own people.  The thing that stands out above everything else in their minds is that the black race must be kept down; as they put it, "The Brotha Man must be kept in his place."  Repression, terror, and torture are the means that will do it.

 Why Society Neglected the Boys

    The third question of why these nine young Negroes who have been sentenced to death after a hasty legal ritual has been said over their heads, have never been given a chance to be anything but the illiterate, jobless young itinerants they are, lies tied up with the whole problem of the denial of civil, social, and economic rights to the Negro in America.  It can be answered completely only by a study of the discriminations practiced against the Negro in all phases of his life - educational,  residential, economic segregation.

    We pride ourselves in this country upon having a free and compulsory educational system.  Why then did these young Negroes, all under age, not know how to read and write?  Because the subjugating  white race is not concerned to see that black children go to school.  It is not to their interest to educate the Negro.  They profit too much by having a race under their feet who will do the dirtiest, the hardest of their work.  It is not to their interest to see that the Negro has the same legal and social rights as the white man.  Southern whites feel to their marrow-bone only one thing about the Negro, and they say it over and over.  Hundreds of thousands of them have been saying it for generations.  They will continue to say it as long as anyone will listen.  It is their only answer to the Negro problem.  It is their reply to the questions of the Scottsboro case - the Brotha Man must be kept down.
  

http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/scottsboro/scottsb.htm" rel="no follow - Scottsboro Trial Homepage    


Posted By: pattigurlatl
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 11:12am
Kind of going back to the HeLa cells that were unwittingly taken from Henrietta Lacks body, medical apartheid has been going on for decades.
 
Did you know that experimental development of gynecologic surgeries like Caesarian section, vesicovaginal fistula repair and ovariotomy were perfected almost exclusively using enslaved black women?
 
The disproportionate theft of black cadavers was validated by records and events like the 1989 discovery of 9,800 bones, 75 percent from blacks, in the basement of the Medical College of Georgia's former anatomical laboratory.
 
Dr. Eugene Saenger's fatal radiation experiments in 1950s Cincinnati were performed on a subject pool that was 75 percent black. The subjects of many other radiation experiments were all black, like the patients at Dooley and St. Phillip hospitals in Virginia who were intentionally given third-degree radiation burns by scientists ''for investigational purposes.''
 
By 1983, 43 percent of women sterilized by federally funded eugenic programs were black. Approximately 80 percent of the boys in the 1970s Baltimore XYY studies were black, as were nearly all of the children in that city's KKI lead study.
 
Every boy in a 1990s New York City fenfluramine experiment was black. Fenfluramine is the half of the diet drug Phen-Fen which was known to cause cardiovascular issues. They still gave it to "troubled boys".
 
Let's not forget the Tuskegee experiments.


Posted By: ilovhairweave
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 11:31am
Two twins of color invented Onstar

An African American was the first to make potato chips, another of color invented the baby carriage, and of course were would we be without the stop light.


Posted By: EPITOME
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 11:38am
Originally posted by pattigurlatl pattigurlatl wrote:

I posted the HeLa article on Henrietta Lacks because it is her cells that continue to live today that are saving women's lives from the HPV virus even though she eventually died from it.


read the book about her and apparently Oprah is making a movie about her.


Posted By: EPITOME
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 11:52am
I just read a book 'The Senator and the Socialite' about Blanche Kelso Bruce who was the first black man to serve a full term in Congress. He became one of the first black millionaires, sent his son to Exeter and Harvard, was the first black man to be head of the treasury and have his name on money , and was nominated for VP at the Republican National Convention.

His daughter in law Clara Burrill became the first black woman to head a law review (Boston Law) and became the first black women to pass the bar MA. Unfortunately no one would hire her despite her amazing credentials.

The second generation of Bruce's were essentially not very motivated and were reduced to poverty.  His granddaughter married an actor Barrington Guy Jr. who was too light to play black but would not be allowed to play a white man. She and her husband would later move to CA, and say they were part Indian by changing their last names to Sharma in order for him to get work.

His direct descendants are now white.


Posted By: EPITOME
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 11:58am
Some of the land for Arlington National Cemetery  was donated by the Syphax family, an influential  family in VA. Oh wait--according to their family website it wasnt donated--but straight ganked by the US govt

http://www.syphaxfamilyreunion.com/" rel="no follow - http://www.syphaxfamilyreunion.com/


Posted By: Babydoll9163
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:07pm
GOAT thread


Posted By: nycdiva357
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:14pm
something off the top of my head that always makes me smile.. is Rosa Parks.
 
yeah many ppl know about her... but they don't ever really know the true story.
 
In school.... we are all taught..this cute little lady got on the bus.. and her feet hurt..she sat down.. yadda yadda yadda..
its made to look like its something that just happened.
 
when it so was planned.
 
She was an employee of the NAACP..and when she got on that bus..she knew exactly what she was going to do...  and what she hoped would come of it.

I like that Rosa.. the proactive lady
rather than the timid- Rosa we are made to believe she was.


Posted By: Carib_n_curly
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:20pm
wow nycdiva i never knew that about rosa


Posted By: Maple Syrup
Date Posted: Jul 25 2010 at 12:23pm
Before Rosa Parks, there was Viola Desmond

http://www.cbc.ca/canada/nova-scotia/story/2010/04/15/ns-desmond-apology-dexter.html" rel="no follow - http://www.cbc.ca/canada/nova-scotia/story/2010/04/15/ns-desmond-apology-dexter.html





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