PIH....POST INFLAMMATORY HYPERPIGMENTATION
The following info was copied and pasted
HQ, retinoids, chemical peels, are all useful, as well as Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C AHA), Azelaic acid, Topical Corticosteroid Creams, and Microdermabrasion.
Sunblock is a must!!!
In addition, the following ingredients reduce the incidence of PIH
1. The Beta-Hydroxy Acid (BHA) Salicylic Acid is a chemical exfoliating agent often used to fight acne. Salicylic Acid is oil-based and does not work on the surface like Alpha-Hydroxy Acids (AHAs), but rather penetrates oil-clogged pores and breaks down the dead skin cells found there so they can slough off. By reducing inflammation, BHA creams also reduce the occurrence of PIH.
2. N-Acetyl Glucosamine* inhibits the production of melanin in skin cells thereby preventing the formation of PIH.
3. Niacinamide* (Vitamin B) inhibits the movement of melanin up to the visible skin layers. Excess melanasomes (cells which transport melanin to the surface) are trapped where the dark pigment wonâ€™t show. Eventually the cells die and the debris is absorbed by the body.
* N-Acetyl Glucosamine and Niacinamide have been shown to be more effective in combination than either one alone. Scientists theorize this is because the combined formula attacks hyperpigmentation at two different points: melanin production; and melanin transportation.
The results of three rigorous clinical trials of N-Acetyl Glucosamine combined with Niacinamide were presented at the 2006 mid-year meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology. The complex produced visible improvement in pigmentation after eight weeks.
Before and after photos (courtesy of P&G Beauty) were taken under polarized lighting conditions, optimized to produce an evenly lit color image.
[The studies also showed increased collagen production. This would be of interest to anyone with the type of hyperpigmentation referred to as age spots, which is commonly accompanied by thinning skin and wrinkles.]
4. Azelaic Acid (available in prescription Finacea) is believed to be toxic to melanocytes (the cells which produce melanin) and to prevent their proliferation.
5. Your doctor may prescribe steroidal glucocorticoids to stop the inflammation which triggers PIH.
The following Ingredients Speed up the Fading Process of PIH:
- Hydroquinone is the most effective skin lightener and has the longest track record. It is available OTC in 1 to 2% concentration. Adverse reactions are rare at these lower concentrations. Hydroquinone is not stable and needs to be kept away from light and air. If it turns brown you know it is no longer effective.
- Kojic Acid
- Licorice Extract
Other ingredients work by exfoliation. By speeding cell turnover, exfoliants hasten the ascent of excess PIH melanin to the surface where it will slough off.
Don't expect overnight results. Melanin is formed at the basal layer of the epidermis and takes about a month to rise to the surface.
So while you're exfoliating the visible layer of skin, new melanin may already be on its way to the surface (unless you are taking steps to stop melanin production and/or transport).
[Extracted from: Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation]
Edited by Benni - Dec 05 2013 at 5:19pm